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Table 1 Effect of silver nanoparticles on fertilization cumulative time of Hydroides elegans

From: Toxicity of silver nanoparticles on fertilization success and early development of the marine polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883)

Developmental stages Control in sea water (min) Mean time in minutes
Concentration of silver nanoparticles expressed in nanomolar (nM)
1 2 3 4 5
Fertilization membrane 4.56 ± 0.35 5.31 ± 0.07 5.69 ± 0.31 6.65 ± 0.34* 7.04 ± 0.40* 7.55 ± 0.48*
2 cell 29.58 ± 0.61 30.41 ± 1.03 31.31 ± 0.83 32.48 ± 0.48* 41.25 ± 0.87* 44.56 ± 0.58*
4 cell 49.46 ± 1.01 50.45 ± 1.10 51.28 ± 0.81 51.57 ± 0.44* 53.1 ± 0.05*
8 cell 59.02 ± 1.03 59.53 ± 0.90 60.02 ± 0.61 61.06 ± 0.63* 62.26 ± 0.17*
16 cell 59.51 ± 0.51 60.10 ± 0.05 60.17 ± 0.07 73.13 ± 0.58* 80.53 ± 0.54*
64 cell 83.31 ± 0.75 90.46 ± 0.90* 96.46 ± 1.05* 100.54 ± 1.63* 115.53 ± 0.54*
Blastula 113.04 ± 0.73 126.46 ± 0.56* 146.59 ± .60* 168.06 ± 0.50*
Rotation stage 139.28 ± 1.20 155.02 ± 0.64* 180.33 ± 0.52* 208.56 ± 0.44*
Larval 1328.33 ± 7.63 1445.19 ± 2.71* 1518.48 ± 5.43*
  1. The mean difference is significant when compared to control
  2. *P < 0.05 level