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Table 3 Managerial and nutritional effect on ingestive, comfort, and aggressive behavior of heat-stressed pigeon

From: Behavioral, hepato-morphological, and biochemical studies on the possible protective effect of black seed and water bath against change-mediated heat stress on pigeon

Group item Control Heat stress Water bath Propolis Black seed Wheat diet
Ingestive behavior (act\30 min)
Feeding behavior 10 ± 0.8a 6.7 ± 1.6b 9.7 ± 0.9a 6.9 ± 0.6b 10 ± 2.3a 6.6 ± 0.6b
Drinking behavior 2.9 ± 0.6b 4.7 ± 0.9a 2.1 ± 0.6b 4.4 ± 0.7a 4.1 ± 0.1a 3.4 ± 0.5a
Feeding/drinking ratio 3.7 ± 0.9a 3.8 ± 0.9a 4.3 ± 0.9a,b 1.6 ± 0.7a,b 2.9 ± 0.7a,b 2.3 ± 0.9b
Comfort behavior (act\30 min)
Preening 12.3 ± 0.6b 13.3 ± 0.8b 19.7 ± 4.9a 9.4 ± 0.9b 10.7 ± 1.6b 9.7 ± 1.6b
Wing and leg stretching 1.9 ± 2.5b 2.1 ± 2.5b 3.1 ± 1.2a 2.9 ± 2.5a,b 2 ± 0.4b 1.7 ± 0.3b
Foot and ground pecking 4.7 ± 0.9b 4.7 ± 1.6b 8.8 ± 1.9a 5.7 ± 1.6b 5.9 ± 0.3b 8.2 ± 1.6a
Aggressive behavior (wing flick, wing fend, and fluffing) (act\30 min)
Aggressive behavior 10.7 ± 1.4a 11.7 ± 1.4a 8.8 ± 1.3b 9.2 ± 1.4a,b 8.3 ± 0.6b 7.5 ± 1.2b
  1. Means with different superscripts in the same row differ significantly