From: Fish diet and male reproductive hormones in albino rats
Parameters | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Total testosterone (ng/ml) | 17β-Estradiol (pg/ml) | FSH (nIU/ml) | LH (IU/ml) | Prolactin (ng/ml) | Sperm count (× 10^{6}) | Sperm abnormalities (%) | |||
Groups | |||||||||
Normal control group | Range | 2.12–3.83 | 0.42–0.56 | 0.78–1.20 | 3.20–4.10 | 0.50–0.67 | 8.05–9.20 | 6.00–8.00 | |
Mean ± S.E. | 2.93 ± 0.30 | 0.47 ± 0.02 | 0.96 ± 0.09 | 3.65 ± 0.23 | 0.59 ± 0.04 | 8.50 ± 0.35 | 7.33 ± 0.67 | ||
Rats fed with grilled tilapia fish groups | Wild fresh water tilapia fish | Range | 1.22–2.83 | 0.41–0.61 | 0.41–0.65 | 3.00–5.00 | 0.68–0.81 | 5.35–7.70 | 10.00–12.00 |
Mean ± S.E. | 1.87 ± 0.24 | 0.48 ± 0.03 | 0.50 ± 0.05 | 4.33 ± 0.67 | 0.73 ± 0.03 | 6.53 ± 1.18 | 11 ± 1 | ||
% of change | − 36.18 | 2.13 | − 47.92 | 18.63 | 23.73 | − 23.18 | 50.07 | ||
P value | P < 0.05^{(a)} | N.S^{(a)} | P < 0.01^{(a)} | N.S^{(a)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} | N.S^{(a)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} | ||
Farmed fresh water tilapia fish | Range | 1.42–2.08 | 0.43–0.53 | 0.39–0.65 | 3.00–4.10 | 0.70–0.90 | 4.65–5.65 | 10.00–14.00 | |
Mean ± S.E. | 1.69 ± 0.08 | 0.48 ± 0.01 | 0.55 ± 0.08 | 3.50 ± 0.29 | 0.80 ± 0.04 | 5.07 ± 0.3 | 12.33 ± 1.20 | ||
% of change | − 42.32^{(a)}–9.63^{(b)} | 2.13^{(a)} 0^{(b)} | − 42.71^{(a)} 10^{(b)} | − 4.11^{(a)}–19.17^{(b)} | 35.59^{(a)} 9.59^{(b)} | − 40.35^{(a)}–22.36^{(b)} | 68.21^{(a)} 12.09^{(b)} | ||
P value | P < 0.01^{(a)} N.S^{(b)} | N.S^{(a), (b)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} N.S^{(b)} | N.S^{(a), (b)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} N.S^{(b)} | P < 0.01^{(a)} N.S^{(b)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} N.S^{(b)} | ||
Wild brackish water tilapia fish | Range | 1.50–2.26 | 0.42–0.51 | 0.21–0.31 | 1.00–2.00 | 0.39–0.41 | 4.55–7.80 | 10.00–14.00 | |
Mean ± S.E. | 1.84 ± 0.10 | 0.46 ± 0.01 | 0.27 ± 0.03 | 1.40 ± 0.24 | 0.40 ± 0.01 | 6.57 ± 1.02 | 11.67 ± 1.20 | ||
% of change | − 37.20 | − 2.13 | − 71.88 | − 61.64 | − 32.20 | − 22.71 | 59.21 | ||
P value | P < 0.01^{(a)} | N.S^{(a)} | P < 0.01^{(a)} | P < 0.001^{(a)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} | N.S^{(a)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} | ||
Farmed brackish water tilapia fish | Range | 1.29–1.76 | 0.42–0.50 | 0.39–0.53 | 1.00–2.00 | 0.86–0.99 | 5.00–7.75 | 11.00–16.00 | |
Mean ± S.E. | 1.53 ± 0.1 | 0.45 ± 0.01 | 0.45 ± 0.03 | 1.40 ± 0.24 | 0.92 ± 0.03 | 5.84 ± 0.51 | 13.67 ± 1.45 | ||
% of change | − 47.78^{(a)}–16.85^{(c)} | − 4.26^{(a)}–2.17^{(c)} | − 53.13^{(a)} 66.67^{(c)} | − 61.64^{(a)} 0^{(c)} | 55.93^{(a)} 130^{(c)} | - -31.29^{(a)}–11.11^{(c)} | 86.49^{(a)} 17.14^{(c)} | ||
P value | P < 0.01^{(a)} N.S^{(c)} | N.S^{(a), (c)} | P < 0.01^{(a), (c)} | P < 0.001^{(a)} N.S^{(c)} | P < 0.01^{(a)} P < 0.001^{(c)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} N.S^{(c)} | P < 0.05^{(a)} N.S ^{(c)} | ||
ANOVA |
F = 8.63 P < 0.001 |
F = 0.47 N.S |
F = 17.10 P < 0.001 |
F = 18.42 P < 0.001 |
F = 30.64 P < 0.001 |
F = 3.62 P < 0.05 |
F = 4.39 P < 0.05 |