Skip to main content

Table 2 The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), after 1, 7, and 14 days in the brain, liver, and kidneys of control rats (I), and those administered 0.5 g and 1.0 g of NiO-NPs (II and III), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of Co3O4-NPs (IV and V,) as well as mixtures of NiO-NPs + Co3O4-NPs (0.25 g + 0.25 g, VI) and (0.5 g + 0.5 g, VII) per kilogram body weight, respectively

From: Genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the orally administered nanosized nickel and cobalt oxides in male albino rats

Parameter Time (days) Experimental group
I II III IV V VI VII
MDA (nmol/g tissue) Brain 1 5.11 ± 0.19a 6.54 ± 0.04c 7.31 ± 0.31d 7.11 ± 0.25d 6.49 ± 0.09c 6.43 ± 0.24b 6.25 ± 0.23b
7 5.16 ± 0.11a 6.40 ± 0.19bc 7.23 ± 0.31c 6.83 ± 0.10bc 6.51 ± 0.39bc 6.37 ± 0.33bc 6.07 ± 0.33b
14 5.18 ± 0.14a 5.75 ± 0.10ab*# 6.74 ± 0.35c* 6.18 ± 0.01bc*# 5.69 ± 0.32ab 5.49 ± 0.10a*# 5.49 ± 0.12a*
Liver 1 6.27 ± 0.10a 7.50 ± 0.15c 8.48 ± 0.11d 7.99 ± 0.05d 7.43 ± 0.13c 7.33 ± 0.31b 7.09 ± 0.30b
7 6.29 ± 0.10a 6.93 ± 0.29bc 7.15 ± 0.07bc* 7.23 ± 0.06c* 6.57 ± 0.04ab* 6.73 ± 0.25ab 6.64 ± 0.28ab
14 6.31 ± 0.19ab 6.49 ± 0.01bc* 6.90 ± 0.02c*# 7.02 ± 0.19c* 6.45 ± 0.09b* 5.91 ± 0.23a* 6.07 ± 0.18ab*
Kidney 1 5.83 ± 0.29a 7.50 ± 0.06c 8.10 ± 0.14d 7.99 ± 0.14d 7.50 ± 0.14c 6.75 ± 0.24b 6.98 ± 0.30b
7 5.94 ± 0.31a 6.56 ± 0.13a* 7.51 ± 0.13b* 7.48 ± 0.09b* 6.77 ± 0.18ab* 6.65 ± 0.33ab 6.74 ± 0.50ab
14 5.91 ± 0.24a 6.33 ± 0.05a* 7.18 ± 0.14b* 7.23 ± 0.09b* 6.27 ± 0.28a* 5.91 ± 0.23a* 5.76 ± 0.26a*
GSH (mg/g issue) Brain 1 25.35 ± 0.99c 21.66 ± 0.48b 20.02 ± 0.20a 18.82 ± 0.22a 21.63 ± 0.52b 21.66 ± 0.92b 22.00 ± 0.94b
7 25.40 ± 1.43b 22.85 ± 0.49a 20.23 ± 0.39a 20.71 ± 0.20a* 22.61 ± 0.96a* 22.33 ± 0.95a 22.70 ± 0.76a
14 25.60 ± 1.33c 25.24 ± 0.63c*# 21.46 ± 0.42a*# 22.40 ± 0.13ab*# 24.40 ± 0.51bc* 24.24 ± 0.87bc 25.45 ± 1.08c*
Liver 1 47.65 ± 0.70d 40.88 ± 0.88c 33.57 ± 1.43a 34.98 ± 0.65b 39.62 ± 0.47c 37.38 ± 1.59c 39.00 ± 1.66c
7 47.70 ± 1.02c 42.46 ± 0.87b 39.27 ± 0.36ab* 37.86 ± 0.85a* 42.17 ± 0.25b* 40.00 ± 1.70ab 40.22 ± 1.71ab
14 48.10 ± 0.40b 47.86 ± 0.28b*# 45.53 ± 0.40a*# 44.20 ± 0.13a*# 46.40 ± 0.41ab*# 47.42 ± 2.02ab*# 48.03 ± 2.04b*#
Kidney 1 53.98 ± 2.07d 38.00 ± 0.15b 34.26 ± 0.14a 39.37 ± 0.57b 40.22 ± 1.71c 41.66 ± 1.77c 43.60 ± 1.85c
7 53.80 ± 1.46e 44.88 ± 0.31bc* 41.48 ± 0.51ab* 40.69 ± 0.29a* 44.91 ± 0.27bc* 47.16 ± 1.86cd 48.90 ± 2.08d
14 54.10 ± 1.71b 51.93 ± 0.27b*# 44.26 ± 0.36a*# 46.00 ± 0.19a*# 50.27 ± 0.66b*# 51.11 ± 2.17b* 52.79 ± 2.25b*
  1. Data is represented as mean ± standard error of mean
  2. In the same row, values marked with the different superscript letters are statistically differed (P < 0.05), while those with similar ones are insignificantly differed (P > 0.05)
  3. *, #: significant differences (at P<0.05), as compared to the values at the first and seventh day, respectively