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Table 3 The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), expression levels of SOD gene, and levels of zinc (Zn), after 1, 7, and 14 days, in the brain, liver, and kidneys of control rats (I), and those administered 0.5 g and 1.0 g of NiO-NPs (II and III), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of Co3O4-NPs (IV and V) as well as mixtures of NiO-NPs + Co3O4-NPs (0.25 g + 0.25 g, VI) and (0.5 g + 0.5 g, VII) per kg body weight, respectively

From: Genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the orally administered nanosized nickel and cobalt oxides in male albino rats

Parameter Time (days) Experimental group
I II III IV V VI VII
SOD activity (U/g tissue) Brain 1 2.47 ± 0.11e 1.40 ± 0.03b 1.02 ± 0.03a 1.15 ± 0.01a 1.46 ± 0.01b 1.58 ± 0.07c 1.93 ± 0.03d
7 2.48 ± 0.13e 1.69 ± 0.07bc* 1.44 ± 0.01a* 1.52 ± 0.05ab* 1.72 ± 0.01bc* 1.85 ± 0.01c* 2.15 ± 0.09d*
14 2.46 ± 0.06f 2.20 ± 0.05cd*# 1.78 ± 0.04a*# 2.07 ± 0.04b*# 2.11 ± 0.01bc*# 2.23 ± 0.01d*# 2.32 ± 0.02e*
Liver 1 0.53 ± 0.01e 0.33 ± 0.01b 0.24 ± 0.01a 0.34 ± 0.01b 0.38 ± 0.02c 0.37 ± 0.02c 0.40 ± 0.01d
7 0.54 ± 0.01e 0.41 ± 0.01c* 0.33 ± 0.01a* 0.37 ± 0.01b 0.40 ± 0.01c 0.41 ± 0.01c* 0.46 ± 0.01d*
14 0.55 ± 0.01c 0.50 ± 0.01b*# 0.43 ± 0.01a*# 0.44 ± 0.02a*# 0.52 ± 0.02bc*# 0.52 ± 0.01bc*# 0.55 ± 0.02c*#
Kidney 1 2.52 ± 0.05e 1.58 ± 0.04b 1.14 ± 0.01a 1.49 ± 0.03b 1.75 ± 0.04c 1.83 ± 0.03c 1.97 ± 0.01d
7 2.59 ± 0.09e 1.74 ± 0.02b* 1.57 ± 0.02a* 1.64 ± 0.02ab 2.00 ± 0.06cd* 1.95 ± 0.01c* 2.13 ± 0.03d*
14 2.47 ± 0.06c 2.14 ± 0.01b*# 1.91 ± 0.03a*# 2.15 ± 0.09b*# 2.16 ± 0.01b*# 2.24 ± 0.01b*# 2.46 ± 0.20c*#
SOD gene (expression level) Brain 1 1.00 ± 0.00f 0.53 ± 0.01b 0.49 ± 0.01a 0.48 ± 0.01a 0.55 ± 0.01c 0.59 ± 0.01d 0.62 ± 0.01e
7 1.00 ± 0.00f 0.57 ± 0.01b* 0.53 ± 0.02a* 0.54 ± 0.01ab* 0.64 ± 0.01c* 0.69 ± 0.01d* 0.76 ± 0.01e*
14 1.00 ± 0.00f 0.67 ± 0.01b*# 0.64 ± 0.01a*# 0.67 ± 0.01b*# 0.79 ± 0.01c*# 0.85 ± 0.01d*# 0.89 ± 0.01e*#
Liver 1 1.00 ± 0.00c 0.61 ± 0.02b 0.51 ± 0.01a 0.59 ± 0.01b 0.60 ± 0.02b 0.54 ± 0.01ab 0.61 ± 0.01b
7 1.00 ± 0.00c 0.74 ± 0.02b* 0.65 ± 0.01a* 0.69 ± 0.02a* 0.76 ± 0.02b* 0.75 ± 0.01b* 0.75 ± 0.01b*
14 1.00 ± 0.00d 0.81 ± 0.02b*# 0.72 ± 0.01a*# 0.72 ± 0.04a* 0.82 ± 0.01b* 0.89 ± 0.01d*# 0.96 ± 0.01d*#
Kidney 1 1.00 ± 0.00e 0.35 ± 0.03b 0.16 ± 0.01a 0.33 ± 0.01b 0.53 ± 0.02cd 0.50 ± 0.01c 0.57 ± 0.02d
7 1.00 ± 0.00d 0.47 ± 0.04b* 0.31 ± 0.02a* 0.37 ± 0.01a* 0.64 ± 0.01c* 0.61 ± 0.03c* 0.68 ± 0.04c
14 1.00 ± 0.00d 0.65 ± 0.01b*# 0.48 ± 0.07a*# 0.64 ± 0.02b*# 0.81 ± 0.03c*# 0.99 ± 0.03d*# 0.99 ± 0.04d*#
Zn levels (μg/g tissue) Brain 1 18.85 ± 0.80d 10.60 ± 0.16bc 7.18 ± 0.31a 9.65 ± 0.41b 10.78 ± 0.36c 10.10 ± 0.39b 11.23 ± 0.39c
7 18.96 ± 0.81d 14.50 ± 0.13bc* 12.20 ± 0.33a* 12.80 ± 0.24a* 13.13 ± 0.36b* 14.26 ± 0.44bc* 14.69 ± 0.62c*
14 18.75 ± 0.80d 16.10 ± 0.22bc*# 13.86 ± 0.11a*# 15.18 ± 0.26ab*# 15.20 ± 0.19ab*# 16.20 ± 0.69bc*# 17.63 ± 0.75cd*#
Liver 1 31.29 ± 1.33d 25.22 ± 0.46b 19.09 ± 0.81a 19.95 ± 0.43a 24.55 ± 0.50b 24.90 ± 0.41b 26.67 ± 0.21c
7 31.43 ± 1.34c 26.90 ± 1.14b 21.31 ± 0.91a 22.80 ± 0.14a* 27.23 ± 0.23b* 27.93 ± 1.05b* 28.14 ± 0.49b
14 31.21 ± 1.33b 29.29 ± 1.04ab* 26.21 ± 0.51a*# 26.51 ± 1.02a*# 29.31 ± 0.33ab*# 28.64 ± 1.22ab* 31.50 ± 1.34b*#
Kidney 1 23.63 ± 1.01e 14.46 ± 0.62b 13.39 ± 0.57a 14.35 ± 0.61ab 17.10 ± 0.73cd 16.28 ± 0.69bc 18.70 ± 0.80d
7 23.75 ± 1.01d 18.73 ± 0.80c* 14.85 ± 0.63a 15.94 ± 0.68ab 17.96 ± 0.76bc 18.03 ± 0.35bc 19.80 ± 0.84c
14 23.68 ± 1.01c 21.20 ± 0.90bc*# 16.60 ± 0.71a* 20.46 ± 0.17b*# 22.73 ± 0.24bc*# 23.90 ± 0.92c*# 23.38 ± 0.99c*#
  1. Data is represented as mean ± standard error of mean. In the same row, values marked with the different superscript letters are statistically differed (P < 0.05), while those with similar ones are insignificantly differed (P > 0.05)
  2. *, #: significant differences (at P<0.05), as compared to the values at the first and seventh days, respectively