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Table 2 The histopathological scoring of trachea of chicken examined in all four groups

From: The ameliorating effect of some immune-stimulants on bursal and tracheal lesions of broiler chickens challenged with ND virus

  Group I Group II Group III Group IV
Epithelial injuery 8 birdsa
3b
4 birdsa
2b
3 birdsa
1b
2 birdsa
2b
Submucosal inflammation 13 birdsa
2b
10 birdsa
1b
8 birdsa
2b
11 birdsa
3b
Submucosal oedema 8 birdsa
2b
7 birdss
1b
8 birdsz
1b
13 birdss
++b
Submucosal haemorrhage 6 birdsa
1b
2 birdsa
1b
0 birda
0b
5 birdsa
2b
  1. aNumber of examined birds
  2. bThe severity degree of lesions designated as follows (Reali-Forster et al., 1996): the epithelial injury, no damage = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2 and severe = 3. Submucosal edema, inflammation and haemorrhage: absent = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2 and severe = 3