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Table 1 Reported pathologies of the extrahepatic biliary tract in mammalian exotic pets and wildlife species

From: Extrahepatic biliary tract pathologies in mammalian species of zoo animals and wildlife: a review

CategoryUnderlying causeDescribed pathological alterationsSpecies concernedReference
OrderProboscidea
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Bacterial infection of biliary tract with Salmonella LondonAround 1 liter of faceted gall stones in hepatic duct (up to 2 cm in diameter); thickened and dilated bile ductsAsian elephant (Elephas maximus) cDecker and Krohn (1973)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Undetermined, diet?, bacterial infection of biliary tract?One single cholelith (4.0 kg) composed mainly out of bile alcohols and a small amount of bilirubinAfrican elephant (Loxodonta africana) fAgnew et al. (2005)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedMany choleliths (diameter of 1–6 cm) in severly dilated and mildly inflamed bile ductAfrican elephant (Loxodonta africana) cPagan et al. (1999)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Undetermined, diet?, bacterial infection of biliary tract?Several gallstones in bile ducts (diameter of around 8 cm)Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) cJarofke (2007)
ParasitologicalFasciola jacksoniParasites in bile ductsAsian elephant (Elephas maximus) c,fCaple et al. (1978); Evans (1910); Perera and Rajapakse (2009)
OrderChiroptera
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedConformation of choleliths in gall bladder or bile ductFlying fox (Pteropus sp.) nsFarina and Lankton (2018)
NeoplasticSecondary to hepatic heochromatosis?CholangiocarcinomaEgyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)Leone et al. (2016)
 ParasitologicalToxocara pteropodisParasite in gall bladderSpectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) cProciv (1990)
OrderCarnivora
 InfectiousPseudomonas aeruginosaCholecystitis with subsequent rupture of the gall bladderDomestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) cHuynh et al. (2014)
 InfectiousUndeterminedCholangiohepatitis, bile duct hyperplasiaDomestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) cGarcía et al. (2002)
 InfectiousIsospora sp.Neoplastic-like thickening of the common bile ductAmerican mink (Neovison vison) cDavis et al. (1953)
 InfectiousStreptococcus sp., Escherichia coliCholecystitisKinkajou (Potos flavus) cPotier and Reineau (2015)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Calcium carbonate, phosphate, bile pigmentsConformation of choleliths in bile ductPolar bear (Ursus maritimus) nsIllingworth (1936)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedA solitary green and orange cholelith with a diameter of 2 cm in the gall bladderGrizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) cMoulton (1961)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedConformation of choleliths (70% palmitic calcium, 30% proteins)Kinkajou (Potos flavus) cPotier and Reineau (2015)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Undetermined, parasitic infection (ascariasis)?Single cholelith and cholecystitisAsiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) cVali et al. (2016)
 NeoplasticUndetermined, age?Gall bladder adenocarcinoma, biliary cystadenomaAfrican lion (Panthera leo) cChu et al. (2012); Sakai et al. (2003)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedBile duct carcinomaBlack panther (Panthera pardus) cHubbard et al. (1983)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedBiliary cystadenomaStriped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) cChu et al. (2012)
 NeoplasticUndetermined, secondary to intrahepatic biliary cysts?Biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinomaBlack-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) cLair et al. (2002)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedAdenocarcinoma of the gall bladderSloth bear (Melursus ursinus) cDorn (1964); Montali et al. (1981)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedBiliary carcinomaMalayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) cMontali et al. (1981)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedBiliary cystadenomaAsiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) cChu et al. (2012)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedCholangiocarcinoma, bile duct adenocarcinomaMargay cat (Felis wiedii) cHubbard et al. (1983); McClure et al. (1977)
 NeoplasticAge?, undeterminedLeiomyosarcoma of the gall bladderGiant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) cPeters et al. (2007)
 ParasitologicalEimeria sp.Gall bladder wall thickened, bile ducts enlarged and firmDomestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) cWilliams et al. (1996)
 ParasitologicalPseudamphistomum truncatumSignificant alterations of gall bladder walls, thickened shrunken gall bladderAmerican mink (Neovison vison) fHawkins et al. (2010); Simpson et al. (2005)
 ParasitologicalPseudamphistomum truncatumSignificant alterations of gall bladder walls, thickened shrunken gall bladderEurasian otter (Lutra lutra) fHawkins et al. (2010); Simpson et al. (2005)
 ParasitologicalPseudamphistomum truncatumCholangiohepatitis, hepatic fibrosisGray seal (Halichoerus grypus) fNeimanis et al. (2016)
OrderArtiodactyla
 NeoplasticUndeterminedGall bladder adenocarcinomaAlpaca (Vicugna pacos) cLombard and Witte (1959)
 ParasitologicalFasciola giganticaBile duct calcificationUganda kob (Kobus kob) fBindernagel (1972)
 ParasitologicalFasciola giganticaBile duct calcificationHartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) fBindernagel (1972)
 ParasitologicalFasciola giganticaBile duct calcificationAfrican buffalo (Syncerus caffer) fBindernagel (1972)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningMouflon (Ovis orientalis) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 parasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningFallow deer (Dama dama) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningChamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningRoe deer (Capreolus capreolus) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningRed deer (Cervus elaphus) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningWhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 ParasitologicalCooperioides hepaticaeCholangitis, bile duct thickening, gall bladder dilatationImpala (Aepyceros melampus) fGallivan et al. (1996)
 ParasitologicalStilesia hepaticaThickening and distention of main bile ductImpala (Aepyceros melampus) fGallivan et al. (1996)
 ParasitologicalFasciola giganticaThickening main bile ductImpala (Aepyceros melampus) fGallivan et al. (1996)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumParasites in bile ductsAlpaca (Vicugna pacos) cKaufmann et al. (2007)
 ParasitologicalFasciola giganticaCholecystitis, gall bladder hyperplasiaPhilippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus) fPortugaliza et al. (2015)
OrderPrimates
 Infectious?UndeterminedCholecystitisCommon marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cChalmers et al. (1983); Tucker (1984)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Septation gall bladder?Conformation of choleliths (mainly composed of cystine and calcium oxalate)Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) cPissinatti et al. (1992)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Septation gall bladder?Conformation of choleliths (mainly composed of cystine and calcium oxalate)Golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) cPissinatti et al. (1992)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Septation gall bladder?Conformation of choleliths (mainly composed of cystine and calcium oxalate)Black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) cPissinatti et al. (1992)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Septation gall bladder?Conformation of choleliths (mainly composed of cystine and calcium oxalate)Wied´s marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii) cPissinatti et al. (1992)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedConformation of choleliths (100% composed of calcium bilirubinate), cholecystitisRhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) cKessler (1982)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Presumably caused by increased biliary cholesterol levelsConformation of choleliths (11 stones measuring up to 4 mm), edematous gall bladder wallsRhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) cMartin et al. (1973)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedConformation of cholelithsBaboon (Papio sp.) cMcSherry et al. (1971)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)CholesterolConformation of choleliths (100% cholesterol), gall bladder fibrosisSlender loris (Loris tardigradus) cPlesker et al. (2012)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedConformation of cholelithsGalago (Galago crassicaudatus) cBurkholder et al. (1971)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedOne single cholelithCommon marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cTucker (1984)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Undetermined, diet?Single gallstone (70x30 mm) obstructed the common bile ductChimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cChatterton et al. (2011)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Age?, bacterial infection of biliary tract?Choleliths composed exclusively out of pigmentsCallithrix sp. cChenet and Petit (2018)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Age?, bacterial infection of biliary tract?Choleliths composed exclusively out of pigmentsLeonthopithecus sp. cChenet and Petit (2018)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedDilated ductus choledochus containing biliary sludge with stenosis of the duodenal papillaSumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) cSchuele et al. (2018)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Inflammatory ileal disease?, abnormal protein metabolism?Cholelith in bile duct (95% cystine, 5% miscellaneous)Black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) cSmith et al. (2006)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Inflammatory ileal disease?, abnormal protein metabolism?Choleliths in gall bladder and bile duct (5% cholesterol, 95% miscellaneous respectively 70% calcium phosphate, 30% miscellaneous)Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) cSmith et al. (2006)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Inflammatory ileal disease?, abnormal protein metabolism?Cholelith in gall bladder (60% miscellaneous, 40% calcium carbonate respectively 80% cystine, 20% miscellaneous)Golden lion tamarin (Callithrix argentata) cSmith et al. (2006)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Inflammatory ileal disease?, abnormal protein metabolism?Cholelith in gall bladderWied´s marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii) cSmith et al. (2006)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)cholesterol and proteinsConformation of cholelithsAfrican green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) cKleinlützum and Plesker (2017)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedConformation of cholelithsSquirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) cLieberman et al. (2016)
Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedOne single large cholelith (composed of cholesterol, bile salts and pigments) lead to gall bladder rupture and fatal peritonitisOrangutan (Pongo sp.) cFox (1930)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)UndeterminedMultiple (10-15) choleliths in gall bladder with a diameter of 2-3 mm and composed almost completely of cholesterolOwl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) cAnver et al. (1972)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedGall bladder adenocarcinomaGuinea baboon (Papio papio) cLombard and Witte (1959)
 NeoplasticUndeterminedCholangiomaSlow loris (Nycticebus coucang) cChu et al. (2012)
 NeoplasticAflatoxin B1 (experimentally induced)Adenocarcinoma of gall bladder and/or bile ductsRhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) cSieber et al. (1979)
 NeoplasticAflatoxin B1 (experimentally induced)Adenocarcinoma of gall bladder and/or bile ductsCynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) cSieber et al. (1979)
 NeoplasticAge?, undeterminedGall bladder adenomaChimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cStarost and Martino (2002)
OrderRodentia
 Infectious?UndeterminedChronic severe cholecystitis with greatly thickened wallsViscacha (Lagostomus maximus) cHamerton (1932)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Calcium carbonate, phosphate, bile pigmentsConformation of cholelithsBeaver (Castor sp.) nsIllingworth (1936)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Diet (fiber content), seasonConformation of choleliths (100% cholesterol)Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii) fGinnett et al. (2003); Schwab and Theis (1989)
 Metabolic (cholelithiasis)Diet (rich in cholesterol?)Conformation of cholelithsCottonrat (Sigmodon hispidus) fPence et al. (1978)
OrderLagomorpha
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningEuropean hare (Lepus europaeus) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
 ParasitologicalDicrocoelium dendriticumBile duct thickeningEuropean rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) freviewed in Bindernagel (1972); Duchácek and Lamka (2003)
  1. c captive, f free-ranging, ns not specified