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Table 3 Perforation Index caused by C. maculatus in cowpea seeds treated with P. guineense powders

From: Perforation index assessment of cowpea seeds against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae], infestation using Piper guineense

P. guineense powders Conc. (g) Total no of seeds Number of damaged seeds % seed damaged % weight loss *Beetle Perforation Index (BPI)
Leaf 1.0 95.25 4.00 4.50 ± 0.07ab 10.00 ± 1.04a 10.00 ± 1.04a
Seeds 94.75 1.00 1.05 ± 0.02ab 5.00 ± 0.02a 2.50 ± 0.02a
Leaf 2.0 94.50 1.00 1.05 ± 0.01ab 5.00 ± 0.02a 2.50 ± 0.02a
Seeds 95.25 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a
Leaf 3.0 94.00 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a
Seeds 95.50 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a
Untreated 0.0 95.25 40.00 42.50 ± 3.75a 75.00 ± 3.20a >50.00 ± 0.00
  1. Each value is a mean ± standard error of four replicates. Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P > 0.05 using Tukey’s test
  2. * - Perforation Index