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Table 4 Incidence of skeletal anomalies in the control fetuses and fetuses maternally treated with low and high doses of progesterone

From: Prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone adversely affects fetal development in Albino rats

Anomalies Control (n=61) Low dose (n=62), 1.8 mg/200 g bw High dose (n=60), 3.6 mg/200 g bw
Lordosis 0.01±0.00c (0.11%±0.00) 0.88±0.11b (14.29%±1.81) 2.77±0.14a (46.93%±3.27)
Vertebral unossified area 0.22±0.14c (3.17% ± 2.10) 0.88±0.11b (14.29%±1.81) 3.55±0.24a (60.11%±5.02)
Skull roof incomplete 0.02±0.00c (0.22%±0.00) 1.22±0.14b (19.31%±1.75) 3.44±0.17a (57.51%±2.20)
Incomplete ossification of sternebrae 0.01±0.00c (0.11%±0.00) 1.11±0.20b (17.99%±3.39) 3.11±0.26a (53.23%±6.05)
Hemisternebra (s) 0.22±0.14c (3.17%±2.10) 0.66±0.16b (10.58%±2.66) 1.88±0.11a (31.90%±2.33)
Incomplete ossification of vertebrae 0.01±0.00c (0.11%±0.00) 1.11±0.11b (17.99%±1.94) 2.88±0.35a (47.51%±4.76)
Incomplete ossification of scapula 0.02±0.00c (0.22%±0.00) 0.88±0.11b (14.29%±1.81) 2.55±0.17a (42.49%±2.20)
Incomplete ossification of humerus 0.02±0.00c (0.22%±0.00) 1.11±0.20b (17.46%±2.77) 2.55±0.17a (42.49%±2.20)
Incomplete ossification of radius and ulna 0.01±0.00c (0.11%±0.00) 1.33±0.23b (21.16%±3.60) 2.55±0.17a (42.49%±2.20)
Incomplete ossification of carpal 0.02±0.00b (0.22%±0.00) 0.77±0.27b (12.43%±4.59) 2.22±0.40a (36.19%±6.10)
Incomplete ossified metacarpal 0.01±0.00c (0.11%±0.00) 1.44±0.17b (23.54%±3.11) 3.11±0.11a (52.49%±2.69)
Forelimb aphalangia (absent phalanx) 0.01±0.00a (0.11%±0.00) 0.66±0.28a (11.11%±4.81) 0.66±0.44a (11.11%±7.34)
Forelimb incomplete ossification of phalanges 0.02±0.00c (0.22%±0.00) 2.44±0.17a (39.68%±3.32) 3.11±0.26ab (51.75%±3.92)
Femur incomplete ossification 0.02±0.00c (0.22%±0.00) 1.33±0.16b (21.69%±2.92) 3.00±0.00a (50.63%±2.03)
Tibia and fibula incomplete ossification (O) 0.01±0.00b (0.11%±0.00) 1.33±0.16a (21.69%±2.92) 1.66±0.23ac (27.46%±3.58)
Incomplete ossification of tarsal 0.02±0.00b (0.22%±0.00) 0.55±0.17b (9.25%±2.92) 2.77±0.32a (46.19%±5.05)
Incomplete ossified metatarsal 0.22±0.14c (3.70%±2.45) 1.22±0.14b (19.31%±1.75) 3.66±0.23a (61.22%±3.40)
Hindlimb aphalangia (absent phalanx) 0.01±0.00b (0.11%±0.00) 2.22±0.14b (3.70%±2.45) 2.33±0.52a (38.78%±8.56)
Hindlimb incomplete ossification of phalanges 0.22±0.14b (3.70%±2.45) 1.77±0.36a (28.57%±6.03) 3.00±0.60ac (50.00%±9.83)
  1. Data was expressed as mean ± SE and mean percent
  2. Different superscripts in the same row indicate significance at P< 0.001