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Table 1 Residual and contact effects of ethanol extracts of four plants on the mortality of adult P. fusca at 75% concentration

From: Prospects of botanical pesticides in management of Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma fusca (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) under laboratory and field conditions

Treatments TAT (min)
20 40 60 80 100 120 1440
R C R C R C R C R C R C R C
P. guineense 1.33 abc 5.00a 2.67 a 0.00b 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
A . indica 2.00 to 5.00a 2.00 to 0.00b 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
J . carcus 0.33 bc 3.00b 3.33 a 1.33 a 1.00 0.67 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
A . melegueta 1.67abc 3.33 b 1.33 ab 1.00 to 1.33 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cypermethrin 2.33 a 5.00a 1.67 ab 0.00b 0.67 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Control 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sig. level ** ** ** * Ns NS Ns Ns Ns Ns Ns Ns Ns Ns
  1. Means with same letters within the same column are not significantly different. Ns not significant, R residual effects, C contact effects
  2. *Significant at 5%
  3. **Significant at 1% by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT)