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Table 3 Residual and contact effects of aqueous extracts of four plants on the mortality of adult P. fusca at 100% concentration

From: Prospects of botanical pesticides in management of Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma fusca (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) under laboratory and field conditions

Treatments TAT (min)
R C R C R C R C R C R C R C
P . Guinean 0.00c 0.67 bc 0.67 ab 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.33 b 1.33 a 1.67 a 1.67 0.33 1.67 1.00
A . indicates 0.00c 1.00b 0.67 ab 0.00 0.33 1.33 0.33 0.00b 0.33 b 1.67 a 1.00 0.33 1.33 0.00
J . carcus 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 1.00 0.33 1.00 1.33 1.67 a 1.33 a 0.33 b 0.33 0.67 1.33 0.67
A . melegueta 0.67 a 1.33 a 1.00a 0.67 0.67 1.00 1.33 1.67 a 0.00b 0.00b 0.67 0.00 0.67 0.00
Cypermethrin 5.00b 5.00b 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Control 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sig. level ** ** ** Ns Ns Ns Ns ** * ** Ns Ns Ns Ns
  1. Means with same letters within the same column are not significantly different. Ns not significant, R residual effects, C contact effects, TAT time after treatments
  2. **Significant at 5%
  3. **Significant at 1% by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT)