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Table 1 Ameliorative effects of Carica papaya on the histopathological changes in the gill and liver of Clarias gariepinus exposed to atrazine for 28 days

From: Carica papaya and Mangifera indica modulate haematological, biochemical and histological alterations in atrazine-intoxicated fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

Tissue Lesion Treatment
A B C D E F
Gill Curling of lamella +++ + +
Degeneration of cartilaginous core +
Displacement of gill filament +
Hyperplasia ++
Lamella fusion ++ + +
Lamella swelling ++
Necrosis + ++ + ++
Oedema + +
Rupture of secondary lamella ++
Liver Cellular infiltration + +
Displacement of central vein +
Necrosis
Oedema ++
Sinusoidal distortion ++ ++ + +
  1. − (none), + (mild), ++ (moderate) and +++ (severe); A control; B atrazine-exposed group; C low (0.25 mg/g) concentration of C. papaya alone; D atrazine + low (0.25 mg/g) concentration of C. papaya; E high (0.75 mg/g) concentration of C. papaya alone; F atrazine + high (0.75 mg/g) concentration of C. papaya