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Table 4 Least square means of various biochemical parameters for tissue type, atrazine exposures and extract type

From: Carica papaya and Mangifera indica modulate haematological, biochemical and histological alterations in atrazine-intoxicated fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

Parameter Tissue Atrazine* Extract
Blood Gill Liver SE I II III IV V VI SE C. papaya M. indica SE
Glucose 3.33a 31.73c 14.15b 1.42 19.35a 14.41a 16.08a 17.94a 16.99a 13.62a 2.01 16.64a 16.16a 1.16
Total protein 48.50c 11.83a 16.98b 1.76 31.28a 23.12a 25.53a 25.31a 22.25a 27.13a 2.49 23.40a 28.14b 1.44
ALT (IU/l) 18.13a 68.31c 50.39b 5.04 39.48a 53.13a 48.03a 44.83a 42.61a 45.57a 7.13 39.41a 51.81b 4.12
AST (IU/l) 169.29a 200.82a 219.10a 19.01 219.56a 251.04a 202.11a 171.91a 177.32a 156.48a 26.88 196.13a 196.67a 15.52
LDH (IU/) 65.82a 116.48b 170.90c 11.66 116.98a 127.53a 131.37a 114.77a 110.76a 105.01a 16.50 89.82a 145.65b 9.52
SOD (IU/l) 116.54b 86.24a 162.77c 8.83 127.36a 119.29a 120.12a 131.23a 114.74a 118.37a 12.49 104.88a 138.82b 7.21
AChE (IU/l) 12.68a 16.84b 25.06c 1.12 19.52a 16.06a 17.38a 20.40a 19.70a 16.10a 1.59 17.06a 19.32a 0.92
MDA 3.93a 16.40b 26.94c 0.81 13.71a 19.16b 16.65ab 15.29ab 15.53ab 14.18ab 1.14 14.11a 17.40b 0.66
  1. Glucose (mmol/l), Total protein (g/l), ALT (Alanine transaminase), AST (Aspartate transaminase), LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase), SOD (Superoxide dismutase), AChE (Acetylcholinesterase), MDA (Malondialdehyde, nmolMDA/l)
  2. *I control II atrazine-exposed group III low concentration of plant extract alone IV atrazine + low concentration of plant extract V high concentration of plant extract alone VI atrazine + high concentration of plant extract
  3. Means along the same row for tissue type, atrazine exposures and extract type with different superscripts were significantly different at p < 0.05