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Table 2 Comparative means* (± SE) of physico-chemical parameters in the culture system during the exposure period

From: Assessment of the growth performance and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to soap effluent

Parameters Homogenous effluent concentrations (%)
0% 0.32% 0.66% 1.31% 2.63%
pH 6.64 ± 0.05a 6.69 ± 0.07a 6.73 ± 0.07a 6.79 ± 0.07a 7.02 ± 0.06b
Temperature (℃) 26.57 ± 0.35a 26.51 ± 0.26a 26.49 ± 0.29a 26.47 ± 0.35a 26.43 ± 0.31a
Conductivity (µs/cm) 222.33 ± 17.30a 231.01 ± 17.38a 239.51 ± 17.96a 248.82 ± 17.95a 260.79 ± 19.14b
Dissolved oxygen (DO) 4.90 ± 0.73b 4.43 ± 0.66b 4.00 ± 0.64b 3.43 ± 0.59a 3.11 ± 0.59a
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (mg/L) 13.08 ± 2.72a 18.90 ± 3.37b 17.46 ± 3.10b 17.85 ± 2.15b 21.56 ± 3.73c
Alkalinity (CaCO3 mg/L) 54.67 ± 9.51a 53.50 ± 9.49a 65.17 ± 13.70b 65.00 ± 13.39b 87.83 ± 13.16c
Acidity (CaCO3 mg/L) 16.50 ± 3.45a 23.76 ± 6.76b 21.84 ± 6.26b 21.01 ± 5.85b 30.18 ± 9.22c
Total dissolved solids (TDS) (mg/L) 126.33 ± 10.64a 131.59 ± 11.45b 135.95 ± 10.64b 141.30 ± 10.63c 146.42 ± 11.74c
Chloride (mg/L) 12.36 ± 2.04b 12.23 ± 1.13b 10.88 ± 1.89a 10.87 ± 1.89a 12.89 ± 1.98b
Calcium (mg/L) 24.25 ± 1.54a 22.70 ± 1.49a 23.58 ± 1.31a 25.65 ± 1.42a 25.72 ± 2.09a
Magnesium (mg/L) 10.59 ± 0.45a 10.12 ± 0.19a 12.45 ± 1.20c 10.39 ± 0.33a 11.15 ± 1.26b
Phosphate (mg/L) 0.07 ± 002a 0.46 ± 0.13c 0.39 ± 0.05c 0.26 ± 0.04b 0.34 ± 0.12c
Sulphate (mg/L) 0.19 ± 0.03a 0.39 ± 0.05b 0.27 ± 0.01b 0.36 ± 0.06b 0.37 ± 0.08b
Nitrate (mg/L) 0.27 ± 0.08a 0.57 ± 0.15b 1.05 ± 0.45c 0.60 ± 0.17b 0.51 ± 0.17b
  1. *Column mean values for each parameter with different superscripts are significantly different at p < 0.05
  2. The * is a note to the usable of the superscript