Skip to main content

Table 6 The percentage of DNA damage (%DNA), tail length (TL), and tail moment (TM), after 1, 7, and 14 days in the brain, liver, and kidneys of control rats (I), and those administered 0.5 g and 1.0 g of NiO-NPs (II and III), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of Co3O4-NPs (IV and V) as well as mixtures of NiO-NPs + Co3O4-NPs (0.25 g + 0.25 g, VI) and (0.5 g + 0.5 g, VII) per kilogram body weight, respectively

From: Genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the orally administered nanosized nickel and cobalt oxides in male albino rats

Parameter Time (days) Experimental group
I II III IV V VI VII
%DNA damage Brain 1 19.15 ± 0.26a 27.82 ± 0.41e 30.21 ± 0.29f 26.01 ± 0.49d 24.12 ± 0.42c 22.64 ± 0.15b 22.35 ± 0.17b
7 19.58 ± 0.53a 24.65 ± 0.14c* 27.35 ± 0.07d* 24.52 ± 0.11c* 22.52 ± 0.43b* 22.21 ± 0.39b 22.05 ± 0.19b
14 19.41 ± 1.48a 22.58 ± 0.14b*# 25.25 ± 0.47c*# 22.64 ± 0.36b*# 20.43 ± 0.18a*# 20.61 ± 0.15a*# 20.31 ± 0.26a*#
Liver 1 20.47 ± 0.41a 27.67 ± 0.32d 30.75 ± 0.43e 27.38 ± 0.07d 26.51 ± 0.20c 24.37 ± 0.17b 24.26 ± 0.59b
7 20.46 ± 0.33a 26.03 ± 0.23e* 28.32 ± 0.67f* 24.28 ± 0.08d* 22.65 ± 0.20c* 22.07 ± 0.33b* 21.36 ± 0.24b*
14 20.12 ± 0.52a 21.58 ± 0.14b*# 25.67 ± 0.80c*# 22.33 ± 0.17b*# 21.44 ± 0.25ab*# 20.28 ± 0.64a*# 20.16 ± 0.58a*
Kidney 1 20.76 ± 0.40a 28.36 ± 0.04e 31.20 ± 0.25f 28.50 ± 0.22e 26.25 ± 0.06d 25.37 ± 0.23c 23.96 ± 0.27b
7 21.26 ± 0.33a 27.15 ± 0.28d* 29.57 ± 0.62e* 27.34 ± 0.34d* 24.51 ± 0.04c* 24.06 ± 0.08c* 22.44 ± 0.37b*
14 21.27 ± 0.64a 25.12 ± 0.41c*# 26.30 ± 0.17d*# 24.40 ± 0.18c*# 22.51 ± 0.25b*# 22.91 ± 0.39b*# 21.16 ± 0.02a*#
TL Brain 1 1.01 ± 0.12a 1.75 ± 0.05c 1.99 ± 0.03d 1.71 ± 0.01c 1.69 ± 0.01c 1.64 ± 0.01c 1.56 ± 0.03b
7 1.03 ± 0.11a 1.55 ± 0.02c* 1.78 ± 0.01d* 1.54 ± 0.03c* 1.47 ± 0.01c* 1.48 ± 0.01c* 1.36 ± 0.01b*
14 0.99 ± 0.08a 1.41 ± 0.01c*# 1.53 ± 0.01d*# 1.42 ± 0.02c*# 1.27 ± 0.01b*# 1.25 ± 0.03b*# 1.20 ± 0.01b*#
Liver 1 1.25 ± 0.02a 1.81 ± 0.01c 2.07 ± 0.11d 1.95 ± 0.03d 1.73 ± 0.02c 1.66 ± 0.03c 1.54 ± 0.02b
7 1.25 ± 0.01a 1.72 ± 0.02d* 1.85 ± 0.02e* 1.85 ± 0.01e* 1.52 ± 0.01c* 1.52 ± 0.01c* 1.35 ± 0.02b*
14 1.26 ± 0.04a 1.56 ± 0.02c*# 1.71 ± 0.01d* 1.46 ± 0.01b*# 1.25 ± 0.01a*# 1.28 ± 0.01a*# 1.24 ± 0.02a*#
Kidney 1 1.10 ± 0.05a 1.77 ± 0.01d 1.97 ± 0.02e 1.83 ± 0.02d 1.63 ± 0.03c 1.57 ± 0.01c 1.42 ± 0.01b
7 1.08 ± 0.01a 1.62 ± 0.02e* 1.83 ± 0.01f* 1.66 ± 0.02e* 1.54 ± 0.03d 1.40 ± 0.01c* 1.28 ± 0.01b*
14 1.11 ± 0.07a 1.38 ± 0.01c*# 1.62 ± 0.01e*# 1.53 ± 0.01d*# 1.37 ± 0.02c*# 1.23 ± 0.02b*# 1.17 ± 0.02a*#
TM Brain 1 0.19 ± 0.02a 0.49 ± 0.01d 0.60 ± 0.01e 0.47 ± 0.01d 0.39 ± 0.01c 0.35 ± 0.01c 0.33 ± 0.01b
7 0.20 ± 0.03a 0.38 ± 0.01d* 0.49 ± 0.01e* 0.38 ± 0.01d* 0.33 ± 0.02c* 0.26 ± 0.01b* 0.23 ± 0.01a*
14 0.19 ± 0.03a 0.32 ± 0.01c*# 0.39 ± 0.01d*# 0.32 ± 0.01c*# 0.26 ± 0.01b*# 0.22 ± 0.01a*# 0.21 ± 0.01a*
Liver 1 0.26 ± 0.01a 0.50 ± 0.01d 0.64 ± 0.04e 0.51 ± 0.01d 0.44 ± 0.01c 0.44 ± 0.01c 0.39 ± 0.01b
7 0.26 ± 0.01a 0.45 ± 0.01d* 0.52 ± 0.01e* 0.45 ± 0.01d* 0.32 ± 0.01b* 0.38 ± 0.01c* 0.32 ± 0.01b*
14 0.25 ± 0.01a 0.34 ± 0.01b*# 0.44 ± 0.02c* 0.33 ± 0.01b*# 0.26 ± 0.01a*# 0.27 ± 0.01a*# 0.26 ± 0.02a*#
Kidney 1 0.23 ± 0.01a 0.50 ± 0.01e 0.61 ± 0.01f 0.52 ± 0.01e 0.43 ± 0.01d 0.40 ± 0.01c 0.34 ± 0.01b
7 0.23 ± 0.01a 0.44 ± 0.01e* 0.54 ± 0.01f* 0.45 ± 0.01e* 0.38 ± 0.01d* 0.34 ± 0.01c* 0.29 ± 0.01b*
14 0.24 ± 0.02a 0.35 ± 0.01c*# 0.43 ± 0.01e*# 0.37 ± 0.01d*# 0.31 ± 0.01b*# 0.28 ± 0.01b*# 0.25 ± 0.01a*#
  1. Data is represented as mean ± standard error of mean. In the same row, values marked with the different superscript letters are statistically differed (P < 0.05), while those with similar ones are insignificantly differed (P > 0.05)
  2. *, #: significant differences (at P<0.05), as compared to the values at the first and seventh days, respectively