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Table 1 The bioaccumulation of cyanide in the organs of birds exposed to cyanide directly and indirectly in feed

From: The chronic effects of cyanide on oxidative stress indices in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus L.)

Groups Direct exposure Exposure via food
Organ Group I (control) Group II (1 mg CN/kg bwt) Group III (2 mg CN/kg bwt) Group IV (3 mg CN/kg bwt) Group V (1 mg CN/kg bwt) Group VI (2 mg CN/kg bwt) Group VII (3 mg CN/kg bwt)
4 weeks exposure
 Liver 0.39 ± 0.05a 1.80 ± 0.05b 2.21 ± 0.03c 3.12 ± 0.07d 0.44 ± 0.04a 0.69 ± 0.05e 0.74 ± 0.05f
 Pancreas 0.31 ± 0.05a 1.44 ± 0.05b 1.85 ± 0.04c 2.39 ± 0.04d 0.37 ± 0.05a 0.76 ± 0.05e 1.24 ± 0.06f
 Kidney 0.36 ± 0.05a 2.13 ± 0.05b 2.72 ± 0.05c 3.15 ± 0.08d 0.53 ± 0.05a 0.78 ± 0.04e 1.17 ± 0.05f
 Brain 0.29 ± 0.05a 0.86 ± 0.05b 1.60 ± 0.04c 1.16 ± 0.04d 0.38 ± 0.05a 0.69 ± 0.05e 0.86 ± 0.07b
 Heart 0.28 ± 0.03a 0.95 ± 0.04b 1.80 ± 0.04c 2.45 ± 0.04d 0.27 ± 0.05a 0.47 ± 0.05e 0.68 ± 0.04f
8 weeks exposure
 Liver 0.36 ± 0.05a 0.89 ± 0.05b 1.71 ± 0.05c 2.84 ± 0.05d 0.32 ± 0.05a 0.53 ± 0.05e 0.89 ± 0.05b
 Pancreas 0.32 ± 0.05a 0.74 ± 0.05b 1.43 ± 0.03c 2.78 ± 0.04d 0.27 ± 0.04a 0.45 ± 0.05e 0.66 ± 0.04f
 Kidney 0.48 ± 0.03a 1.08 ± 0.04b 2.27 ± 0.04c 2.97 ± 0.05d 0.44 ± 0.04a 0.65 ± 0.05e 1.06 ± 0.05b
 Brain 0.33 ± 0.05a 0.79 ± 0.04b 1.34 ± 0.05c 1.46 ± 0.04d 0.34 ± 0.04a 0.48 ± 0.05e 0.78 ± 0.05b
 Heart 0.28 ± 0.04a 0.84 ± 0.05b 1.64 ± 0.03c 2.63 ± 0.04d 0.25 ± 0.03a 0.36 ± 0.04e 0.76 ± 0.05f
12 weeks exposure
 Liver 0.19 ± 0.04a 0.46 ± 0.04b 0.78 ± 0.05c 1.07 ± 0.05d 0.29 ± 0.08a 0.45 ± 0.05b 0.62 ± 0.06e
 Pancreas 0.08 ± 0.02a 0.18 ± 0.03b 0.30 ± 0.05c 0.56 ± 0.04d 0.09 ± 0.05a 0.08 ± 0.05a 0.16 ± 0.05b
 Kidney 0.22 ± 0.02a 0.47 ± 0.03b 0.90 ± 0.05c 1.58 ± 0.05d 0.37 ± 0.06a 0.47 ± 0.05b 0.87 ± 0.06c
 Brain 0.17 ± 0.05a 0.25 ± 0.03b 0.43 ± 0.05c 0.67 ± 0.05d 0.22 ± 0.05a 0.32 ± 0.08b 0.47 ± 0.05c
 Heart 0.12 ± 0.07a 0.41 ± 0.02b 0.65 ± 0.04c 0.78 ± 0.05d 0.18 ± 0.04a 0.27 ± 0.05e 0.38 ± 0.05b
  1. Means not sharing a common superscript (a, b, c, d, e, f) on the same row differ significantly (p < 0.05) from each other. The results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 6). The cyanide concentration is in micrograms per gram tissue for the organs and milligrams per milliter for the serum
  2. bwt body weight