Skip to main content

Table 1 Effect of topical administration of root extracts of Withania somnifera to third instar day 0–3 larvae of Sarcophaga ruficornis (n = 15; replication = 3)

From: Toxicity and insect growth regulatory activities of medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, in flesh fly, Sarcophaga ruficornis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

Age of larvae Dose (μg·μL-1) Larval mortality
(%)
Abnormal pupariation
(%)
Normal pupariation (%) Pupal mortality
(%)
Pupal-adult mosaics
(%)
Adult emergence
(%)
        Normal adults
(%)
Adultoids
(%)
Third instar day 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 0
5 22.22 11.11 66.66 8.88 31.11 13.33 13.33
10 31.11 15.55 53.33 13.33 22.22 11.11 6.66
15 37.77 26.66 35.55 17.77 6.66 4.44 6.66
20 44.44 33.33 22.22 20.00 0.00 0.00 2.22
  (r = 0.96)c (r = 0.99)a (r = − 0.98)b (r = 0.97)b (r = − 0.28) (r = − 0.79) (r = − 0.07)
Third instar day 1 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 0
5 15.55 15.55 68.88 11.11 24.44 20.00 15.55
10 22.22 15.55 62.22 13.33 24.44 11.11 15.55
15 28.88 22.22 48.88 17.77 20.00 4.44 6.66
20 35.55 28.88 35.55 22.22 2.22 0.00 11.11
  (r = 0.98)b (r= 0.95)c (r = − 0.97)b (r = 0.97)b (r = − 0.00) (r = − 0.82) (r = 0.32)
Third instar day 2 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 0
5 8.88 17.77 71.11 13.33 24.44 20.00 15.55
10 15.55 17.77 66.66 20.00 20.00 11.11 15.55
15 22.22 31.11 46.66 22.22 13.33 4.44 6.66
20 28.88 37.77 33.33 24.44 2.22 0.00 4.44
  (r = 1.0)a (r = 0.97)b (r = − 0.98)b (r = 0.93)c (r = − 0.10) (r = − 0.82) (r = − 0.0002)
Third instar day 3 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 0
5 4.44 22.22 73.33 15.55 28.88 15.55 13.33
10 8.88 24.44 66.66 20.00 20.00 13.33 13.33
15 15.55 35.55 48.88 22.22 6.66 8.88 11.11
20 22.22 40.00 37.77 24.44 0.00 0.00 13.33
  (r = 0.99)a (r = 0.95)c (r = − 0.98)b (r = 0.90)a (r = − 0.27) (r = − 0.80) (r = 0.67)
  1. aSignificant at p ≤ 0.001
  2. bSignificant at p ≤ 0.01
  3. cSignificant at p ≤ 0.05; r =correlation coefficient