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Table 7 Effects of probiotics on fish mucosal immunity

From: Recent studies on probiotics as beneficial mediator in aquaculture: a review

Probiotic candidates/products

Fish species

Effects on mucosal immunity/morphology


Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostocmesenteroides

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Enhance phagocytic activity of gut mucosal leucocytes

Balcázar et al. (2006)


Oncorhynchus mykiss

Increase surface area for absorbtion by increasing villi length

Merrifield et al. (2010a, b)

GP21 and GP12

Gadus morhua

Lower down caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase activity of the pathogen infected gut epithelial cells

Lazado, Caipang, Brinchmann, and Kiron (2011)

Bacillus subtilis FPTB13 and chitin

Catla catla

Foster the production of skin mucosal lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase, myeloperoxidase content and total protein content

Sangma & Kamilya, (2015)


Sparus aurata

Enhance the activity of skin mucosal lysozyme and complement C3. Enhance the expression of nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 and natural killer cell enhancing factor.

Cordero, Morcillo, Cuesta, Brinchmann, and Esteban (2016)

Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillusplantarum

Danio rerio

Enhance intraepithelial lymphocytes cell population. Up-regulation of TNF-α and IL-10

Wang, Ren, Fu, and Su (2016)

galactooligosaccharide (prebiotic) and Pediococcusacidilactici

Cyprinus carpio

Enhance immunoglobulin concentration in skin mucus

Modanloo, Soltanian, Akhlaghi, and Hoseinifar (2017)

Vitacel® and PrimaLac®

Lactobacillus plantarum and Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom


Oreochromis niloticus

Modulate mucosal immunity and enhance digestive enzyme activity Enhance the activity of skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase

Mirghaed et al. (2018)

Van Doan, Hoseinifar, Dawood, Chitmanat, and Tayyamath (2017)

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB-9) and Yarrowialipolytica lipase2 (YLL2)

Hybrid sturgeon (Acipenserschrenkii × Acipenser baerii)

Enhance mucus lysozyme activity and leukocytes phagocytic activity

Fei et al. (2018)

Lactobacillus casei and Agaricus bisporus

Danio rerio

Upregulated the expression of mucosal immune genes (TNF-α, LYZ, and IL1B) and anti-oxidant genes like SOD, CAT

Safari, Hoseinifar, Dadar, and Khalili (2018)