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Table 7 Effects of probiotics on fish mucosal immunity

From: Recent studies on probiotics as beneficial mediator in aquaculture: a review

Probiotic candidates/products Fish species Effects on mucosal immunity/morphology References
Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostocmesenteroides Oncorhynchus mykiss Enhance phagocytic activity of gut mucosal leucocytes Balcázar et al. (2006)
Pediococcusacidilactici Oncorhynchus mykiss Increase surface area for absorbtion by increasing villi length Merrifield et al. (2010a, b)
GP21 and GP12 Gadus morhua Lower down caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase activity of the pathogen infected gut epithelial cells Lazado, Caipang, Brinchmann, and Kiron (2011)
Bacillus subtilis FPTB13 and chitin Catla catla Foster the production of skin mucosal lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase, myeloperoxidase content and total protein content Sangma & Kamilya, (2015)
Shewanellaputrefaciens Sparus aurata Enhance the activity of skin mucosal lysozyme and complement C3. Enhance the expression of nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 and natural killer cell enhancing factor. Cordero, Morcillo, Cuesta, Brinchmann, and Esteban (2016)
Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillusplantarum Danio rerio Enhance intraepithelial lymphocytes cell population. Up-regulation of TNF-α and IL-10 Wang, Ren, Fu, and Su (2016)
galactooligosaccharide (prebiotic) and Pediococcusacidilactici Cyprinus carpio Enhance immunoglobulin concentration in skin mucus Modanloo, Soltanian, Akhlaghi, and Hoseinifar (2017)
Vitacel® and PrimaLac®
Lactobacillus plantarum and Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom
Oreochromis niloticus
Modulate mucosal immunity and enhance digestive enzyme activity Enhance the activity of skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase Mirghaed et al. (2018)
Van Doan, Hoseinifar, Dawood, Chitmanat, and Tayyamath (2017)
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB-9) and Yarrowialipolytica lipase2 (YLL2) Hybrid sturgeon (Acipenserschrenkii × Acipenser baerii) Enhance mucus lysozyme activity and leukocytes phagocytic activity Fei et al. (2018)
Lactobacillus casei and Agaricus bisporus Danio rerio Upregulated the expression of mucosal immune genes (TNF-α, LYZ, and IL1B) and anti-oxidant genes like SOD, CAT Safari, Hoseinifar, Dadar, and Khalili (2018)