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Table 5 Seasonal composition of Four-horned Antelope (T. quadricornis) diet in the tropical deciduous forest of southern Rajasthan, India (L= leaves, B=buds, T=twigs, FL=flower, FF=fleshy fruit, DF=Dry fruit/pod). Data is presented in number of feeding records (percentage)

From: Seasonal food habits of the four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816) in tropical deciduous forests of Aravalli mountain range, Rajasthan, Western India

Plant category Family Species Food item Feeding record (%) Feeding records per season (%)
Summer Monsoon Winter
Total number of feeding records 532 (100) 242 (45.5) 119 (22.4) 171 (32.1)
 Monocot Poaceae Aristida adscensionis* L 20(3.76) 5(2.07) 6(5.04) 9(5.26)
  Cenchrus ciliaris * L 8(1.50) - 6(5.04) 2(1.17)
  Cynodon dactylon* L 16(3.01) 1(0.41) 8(6.72) 7(4.09)
  Digitaria ciliaris* L 4(0.75) - 4(3.36) -
  Digitaria longiflora* L 5(0.94) 5(2.07) - -
  Heteropogon contortus* L 8(1.5) - 8(6.72) -
  Themeda triandra* L 12(2.26) 2(0.83) 7(5.88) 3(1.75)
  Sehima nervosum* L 2(0.38) 1(0.41) 1(0.84)  
  Dichanthium annulatum* L 3(0.56) 1(0.41) 1(0.84) 1(0.58)
  Eremopogon foveolatus* L 3(0.56) 1(0.41) 2(1.68) -
  Apluda mutica* L 7(1.32) 6(2.48) 1(0.84) -
  Dendrocalamus strictus § L 18(3.38) 1(0.41) - 17(9.94)
Asparagaceae Asparagus racemosus L 1(0.19) - 1(0.84) -
 Dicot Acanthaceae Justicia simplex L 1(0.19) - 1(0.84) -
  Barleria cristata § L 2(0.38) 2(0.83) - -
Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera L 2(0.38) 2(0.83) - -
Anacardiaceae Rhus mysorensis § L 3(0.56) 3(1.24) - -
  Lannea coromandelica # L,B,T,FF 10(1.88) 9(3.72) - 1(0.58)
Apocynaceae Wrightia tinctoria # L,B,T,FF 14(2.63) 10(4.13) 1(0.84) 3(1.75)
Boraginaceae Cordia dichotoma # L,B,T,FF 4(0.75) 2(0.83) 1(0.84) 1(0.58)
Burseraceae Boswellia serrata # L,B,T,FF 4(0.75) 4(1.65) - -
Capparaceae Capparis sepiaria § L,FL 11(2.07) 7(2.89) 1(0.84) 3(1.75)
Combretaceae Anogeissus acuminata # L,B,T,FL 16(3.01) 4(1.65) 3(2.52) 9(5.26)
  Terminalia bellerica # L,B,T,FF 6(1.13) 4(1.65) - 2(1.17)
  Terminalia crenulata # L,B,T,FF 7(1.37) 7(2.89) - -
Euphorbiaceae Mallotus philippensis # L,B,T,FF 2(0.38) 2(0.83) - -
Fabaceae Desmodium dichotomum L 2(0.38) 2(0.83) - -
  Cassia pumila L 3(0.56) 1(0.41) - 2(1.17)
  Dichrostachys cinerea § L,DF 19(3.57) 11(4.55) 1(0.84) 7(4.09)
  Acacia catechu # L,DF 15(2.82) 7(2.89) 3(2.52) 5(2.92)
  Acacia leucophloea # L,DF 28(5.26) 12(4.96) 7(5.88) 9(5.26)
  Acacia nilotica # L,DF 11(2.07) 8(3.31) - 3(1.75)
  Acacia senegal # L,DF 8(1.5) 6(2.48) - 2(1.17)
  Albizia lebbeck # L,DF 6(1.13) 3(1.24) - 3(1.75)
  Bauhinia racemosa # L,DF 13(2.44) 4(1.65) 9(7.56) -
  Bauhinia variegata # L,B,T,DF 8(1.5) 5(2.07) - 3(1.75)
  Butea monosperma # L,B,T,FL,DF 21(3.95) 9(3.72) 5(4.09) 7(4.09)
  Cassia fistula # L,B,T 9(1.69) 2(0.83) 2(1.68) 5(2.92)
  Dalbergia sissoo # L,DF 5(0.94) 3(1.24) - 2(1.17)
  Albizia odoratissima # L,DF 3(0.56) 2(0.83) - 1(0.58)
  Pithecellobium dulce # L 6(1.13) 4(1.65) - 2(1.17)
  Prosopis cineraria # L,DF 7(1.32) 5(2.07) - 2(1.17)
  Tamarindus indica # L 4(0.75) 4(1.65) - -
Lamiaceae Clerodendrum phlomidis § L,FL 2(0.38) 2(0.83) - -
Meliaceae Soymida febrifuga # L,B,T,FF 2(0.38) 1(0.41) - 1(0.58)
Malvaceae Grewia hirsuta § L, FF 13(2.44) 7(2.89) 1(0.84) 5(2.92)
  Helicteres isora § L,B,T,DF 21(3.95) 13(5.37) - 8(4.68)
  Bombax ceiba # L,B,T,FL 5(0.94) 5(2.07) - -
Moraceae Ficus racemosa # L,B,T,FF 15(2.82) 10(4.13) 2(1.68) 3(1.75)
  Ficus religiosa # L,B,T,FF 5(0.94) 1(0.41) - 4(2.34)
Oleaceae Nyctanthes arbor-tristis § L 4(0.75) - - 4(2.34)
Phyllanthaceae Bridelia retusa # NL,B,T 1(0.19) 1(0.41) - -
  Emblica officinalis # L,FF 6(1.13) 3(1.24) - 3(1.75)
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus nummularia § L,FF 18(3.38) 1(0.41) 8(6.72) 9(5.26)
  Ziziphus glabrata # L,FF 12(2.26) - 7(5.88) 5(2.92)
  Ziziphus mauritiana # L,FF 16(3.01) 2(0.83) 9(7.56) 5(2.92)
  Ziziphus xylopyrus # L,FF 21(3.95) 5(2.07) 10(8.4) 6(3.51)
Rubiaceae Haldina cordifolia # L 2(0.38) 1(0.41) - 1(0.58)
  Hymenodictyon excelsum # L,B,T 2(0.38) 1(0.41) - 1(0.58)
  Mitragyna parvifolia # L,FF 9(1.69) 5(2.07) 2(1.68) 2(1.17)
Rutaceae Aegle marmelos # L,B,T,FF 7(1.32) 4(1.65) - 3(1.75)
Salicaceae Flacourtia indica # L,B,T 2(0.38) 1(0.41) 1(0.84) -
Sapotaceae Madhuca indica # FL,FF 12(2.26) 12(4.96) - --
  1. Growth forms: *grasses, Forbs, Climber, §Shrubs, #Tree