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Table 4 Concentration-response table of C. maculatus adults treated with P. guineense extracts

From: Perforation index assessment of cowpea seeds against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae], infestation using Piper guineense

P. guineense extracts Conc. (%) % mortality ± SE mean
24 h 48 h 72 h 96 h
P. guineense leaf 1 70.00 ± 3.04c 82.50 ± 3.75c 92.50 ± 3.75b 100.00 ± 0.00b
P. guineense seeds 87.50 ± 3.25de 92.50 ± 3.75cd 100.00 ± 0.00b 100.00 ± 0.00b
Methanol (+ve control) 0.00 ± 0.00a 5.00 ± 0.04b 7.50 ± 0.25a 10.00 ± 1.04b
P. guineense leaf 2 80.00 ± 3.04cd 90.00 ± 3.04cd 100.00 ± 0.00c 100.00 ± 0.00b
P. guineense seeds 92.50 ± 3.75ef 100.00 ± 0.00d 100.00 ± 0.00c 100.00 ± 0.00b
Methanol (+ve control) 2.50 ± 0.02a 7.50 ± 0.25b 10.00 ± 1.04a 12.50 ± 1.75b
P. guineense leaf 3 92.50 ± 3.75ef 100.00 ± 0.00d 100.00 ± 0.00c 100.00 ± 0.00b
P. guineense seeds 100.00 ± 0.00f 100.00 ± 0.00d 100.00 ± 0.00c 100.00 ± 0.00b
Methanol (+ve control) 5.00 ± 0.04b 10.00 ± 1.04b 12.50 ± 1.75a 17.50 ± 1.25b
Untreated (−ve control) 0.0 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a
  1. Each value is a mean ± standard error of four replicates. Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P > 0.05 using Tukey’s test