Skip to main content

Table 1 Effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on oxidative stress biomarkers

From: Evaluation of lambda-cyhalothrin oxidative stress and gonad histoarchitecture toxicity potency in Clarias gariepinus

Parameter Concentration (μg/L) Duration (days) 7 days recovery
1 7 14 21 28
CAT (u/mg protein) Control 1.16 ± 0.02a1 1.15 ± 0.06a1 1.17 ± 0.01a1 1.16 ± 0.03a1 1.19 ± 0.01a1 1.18 ± 0.01a1
2.5 × 10−4 1.17 ± 0.01d1 1.26 ± 0.01d12 1.60 ± 0.03c2 2.25 ± 0.03b2 2.57 ± 0.10a2 1.50 ± 0.07c1
5.0 × 10−4 1.30 ± 0.02b2 1.26 ± 0.02b12 1.67 ± 0.02b2 2.67 ± 0.36a2 2.89 ± 0.18a23 1.64 ± 0.10b1
6.25 × 10−4 1.35 ± 0.05d2 1.33 ± 0.02d2 1.97 ± 0.08c3 2.79 ± 0.32ab2 3.05 ± 0.15a3 2.42 ± 0.28bc2
SOD (u/mg protein) Control 10.90 ± 0.04a1 10.92 ± 0.07a1 10.62 ± 0.06a1 10.79 ± 0.20a1 10.88 ± 0.07a1 10.68 ± 0.19a1
2.5 × 10−4 10.65 ± 0.12b1 10.82 ± 0.04b1 10.89 ± 0.03b2 11.28 ± 0.10a1 11.41 ± 0.13a2 10.69 ± 0.13b1
5.0 × 10−4 10.68 ± 0.11b1 10.76 ± 0.16b1 10.88 ± 0.03b2 11.41 ± 0.12a1 11.51 ± 0.16a2 10.91 ± 0.06b1
6.25 × 10−4 10.85 ± 0.07b1 10.90 ± 0.02b1 10.90 ± 0.07b2 11.21 ± 0.47ab1 11.75 ± 0.16a2 10.97 ± 0.07b1
MDA (u/mg protein) Control 2.75 ± 0.12a1 2.92 ± 0.19a1 2.49 ± 0.47a1 2.54 ± 0.25a1 2.39 ± 0.06a1 2.33 ± 0.06a1
2.5 × 10−4 2.51 ± 0.15c1 2.63 ± 0.16c1 2.82 ± 0.14bc1 3.19 ± 0.13b12 4.09 ± 0.05a2 2.73 ± 0.03c2
5.0 × 10−4 2.91 ± 0.13bc1 2.53 ± 0.21c1 2.90 ± 0.07bc1 3.38 ± 0.40b12 4.26 ± 0.23a2 2.78 ± 0.03bc2
6.25 × 10−4 3.10 ± 0.42b1 3.30 ± 0.35b1 2.90 ± 0.12b1 3.74 ± 0.28a2 4.33 ± 0.15a2 2.98 ± 0.02b3
GPx (u/mg protein) Control 10.92 ± 0.58a1 10.05 ± 0.29a1 11.19 ± 0.49a1 11.04 ± 0.36a1 10.80 ± 0.25a1 10.71 ± 0.24a1
2.5 × 10−4 12.64 ± 0.76bc12 11.49 ± 0.76c12 14.08 ± 0.29ab2 14.23 ± 0.25ab2 15.01 ± 0.26a2 11.21 ± 0.50c1
5.0 × 10−4 12.35 ± 1.04bc12 13.50 ± 0.29ab2 14.08 ± 0.29a2 14.69 ± 0.43a2 15.17 ± 0.26a2 11.48 ± 0.57c1
6.25 × 10−4 13.50 ± 0.29bcd2 12.93 ± 0.99cd2 14.36 ± 0.29abc2 14.84 ± 0.19ab2 15.50 ± 0.50a2 11.78 ± 0.57d1
GR (u/mg protein) Control 2.81 ± 0.16a1 2.75 ± 0.20a1 2.55 ± 0.21a1 2.57 ± 0.06a1 2.71 ± 0.05a1 2.72 ± 0.07a1
2.5 × 10−4 2.83 ± 0.18b1 2.70 ± 0.31b1 2.93 ± 0.20b1 3.13 ± 0.14b2 3.98 ± 0.19a2 2.50 ± 0.20b1
5.0 × 10−4 2.88 ± 0.17b1 2.91 ± 0.21b1 3.00 ± 0.17b1 3.26 ± 0.14b2 4.13 ± 0.21a2 2.71 ± 0.15b1
6.25 × 10−4 2.91 ± 0.15b1 3.00 ± 0.15b1 3.13 ± 0.18b1 3.35 ± 0.17b2 4.24 ± 0.24a2 2.78 ± 0.12b1
  1. Values as mean ± S.E. For each parameter, values with different alphabet superscript across a row were significantly different; and values with different numeric superscript down a column were significantly different (p < 0.05)
  2. CAT catalase; SOD superoxide dismutase; MDA malondialdehyde; GPx glutathione peroxide; GR glutathione reductase