Skip to main content

Table 2 Amount and percentage of nutrients obtained from pollinator-independent crops and pollinator-dependent crops

From: Contribution of animal pollination to food nutrient production in Benin-West Africa

Nutriments Pollinator-independent crops Pollinator-dependent crops
NVi (t, GJ) NVi (%) NVsw (t, GJ) NVsw (%) NVap (t, GJ) NVap (%)
Energy 61,562,410.34 85.54 6,771,539.41 9.41 3,637,979.108 5.05
Macro-nutrients
Proteins 274,304.1955 75.64 55,073.52123 15.19 33,252.56085 9.17
Lipids 142,315.9028 44.92 110,821.9622 34.98 63,650.03935 20.09
Carbohydrates 3,184,132.363 94.92 117,876.1511 3.51 52,669.17499 1.57
Dietary fiber 326,537.0804 87.49 37,708.0728 10.10 8998.810733 2.41
Minerals
Calcium (Ca) 1422.679219 69.06 476.0856546 23.11 161.4187774 7.84
Iron (Fe) 79.57423276 68.22 23.98858995 20.57 13.08072026 11.21
Magnesium (Mg) 3217.221999 75.88 575.2351115 13.57 447.2507914 10.55
Phosphorus (P) 6563.742439 75.20 1228.664676 14.08 936.1122706 10.72
Potassium (K) 36,529.11334 86.69 4138.837233 9.82 1471.607013 3.49
Sodium (Na) 913.5972155 89.34 88.42264436 8.65 20.58565499 2.013
Zinc (Zn) 569.0419567 96.82 10.09656548 1.78 8.57173416 1.46
Copper (Cu) 12.98513393 66.05 3.470323984 17.65 3.205132701 16.30
Manganese (Mn) 27.23275928 77.93 4.802385347 13.74 2.910711687 8.33
Selenium (Se) 0.057453562 47.38 0.033959664 28.01 0.02983602 24.61
Fluoride (F) 0.001252067 16.08 0.005994522 77.01 0.000537761 6.91
Vitamins
Vitamin C 1223.608214 92.87 81.64652573 6.20 12.27305766 0.93
Vitamin A 0.677011425 38.78 1.004215952 57.53 0.064358961 3.69
β—carotene 7.785685216 40.00 10.96946289 56.36 0.708737483 3.64
α—carotene 0.359305899 27.10 0.914723374 69.00 0.051620779 3.89
β—cryptoxanthin 0.000347096 0.05 0.716274363 93.49 0.049514306 6.46
Lycopene 0.000101068 0.0013 6.656952534 87.13 0.982953451 12.87
Lutein + zeaxanthin 0.373252089 8.05 3.99664064 86.19 0.267287615 5.76
Vitamin E
α—tocopherol 49.86116787 76.50 13.27713967 20.37 2.036747613 3.13
β—tocopherol 0.00528793 5.98 0.045362643 51.29 0.037793069 42.73
γ—tocopherol 0.082811187 0.81 3.813998521 37.19 6.358970483 62.00
δ—tocopherol 0.005040218 0.76 0.230311368 34.73 0.427721112 64.51
Vitamin B
Thiamin (B1) 13.26146844 85.81 1.375492996 8.90 0.817230966 5.29
Riboflavin (B2) 4.430365606 68.17 1.695706361 26.09 0.372639018 5.73
Niacine (B3) 111.8093498 89.49 10.6843231 8.55 2.440947295 1.95
Pantothenic Acid (B5) 13.10753876 78.00 2.311338656 13.75 1.384777007 8.24
Vitamin B6 16.21025319 88.10 1.490304119 8.10 0.698689559 3.80
Folate B9 2.197313018 76.58 0.516330151 17.99 0.155535108
Vitamin K 0.156033519 40.49 0.16674351 43.27 0.062553479 16.23