Skip to main content

Growth and population biology of the sand-bubbler crab Scopimera crabricauda Alcock 1900 (Brachyura: Dotillidae) from the Persian Gulf, Iran

Abstract

Background

Dotillid crabs are introduced as one common dwellers of sandy shores. We studied the ecology and growth of the sand bubbler crab Scopimera crabricauda Alcock, 1900, in the Persian Gulf, Iran. Crabs were sampled monthly by excavating nine quadrats at three intertidal levels during spring low tides from January 2016 to January 2017.

Results

Population data show unimodal size-frequency distributions in both sexes. The Von Bertalanffy function was calculated at CWt = 8.76 [1 − exp (− 0.56 (t + 0.39))], CWt = 7.90 [1 − exp (− 0.59 (t + 0.40))] and CWt = 9.35 [1 − exp (− 0.57 (t + 0.41))] for males, females, and both sexes, respectively. The life span appeared to be 5.35, 5.07, and 5.26 years for males, females, and both sexes, respectively. The cohorts were identified as two age continuous groups, with the mean model carapace width 5.39 and 7.11 mm for both sexes. The natural mortality (M) coefficients stood at 1.72 for males, 1.83 for females, and 1.76 years−1 for both sexes, respectively. The overall sex ratio (1:0.4) was significantly different from the expected 1:1 proportion with male-biased. Recruitment occurred with the highest number of annual pulse once a year during the summer.

Conclusions

The results, which show slow growth, emphasize the necessity of proper management for the survival of the stock of S. crabricauda on the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

Background

Dotillid crabs are common dwellers of sandy shores, mangrove forests, estuaries, and brackish of tropical and sub-tropical regions (Ng, Guinot, & Davie, 2008; Wong, Chan, & Shih, 2010). The crab Scopimera crabricauda Alcock 1900 is a deposit feeder producing diurnally pseudofaecal pellets at sandy estuarine areas during low tide (Clayton & Al-Kindi, 1998; Gherardi, Russo, & Anyona, 1999). Sandy shores may be a favorable environment for crabs of the genus Scopimera, since habitats suitable for their foraging are the ones that enable them to sort sand with high efficiency and extract the small amount of organic material (Hartnoll, 1973) besides their abundance at muddy shores (Hartnoll, 1974). These crabs have the ability for inhabiting in the intertidal zone through morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations (Gherardi & Russo, 2001). They can display an isospatial strategy, which means changing location between exposure to air and water while remaining within a belt along the sea-land axis (Vannini & Cannicci, 1995).

Crustaceans including crabs, shrimps, and barnacles are ideal organisms for growth studies because precise measurements can be easily made on their exoskeleton in the field (Hartnoll, 1974; Ledesma, Molen, & Baron, 2010). These crustacea are easy to study their population dynamics (Chan & Williams, 2004; Silva et al., 2019; Sousa et al., 2021). Various methods have been applied to model crab growth including mark-recapture (Diele & Koch, 2010), rearing (Kondzela & Shirley, 1993), and length-frequency data analysis (Sharifian, Kamrani, Safaie, & Sharifian, 2017). Length-frequency analysis is an appropriate choice for estimating growth since it relates to data-limited experiments (Chan & Williams, 2004; Safaie, Kiabi, Pazooki, & Shokri, 2013). Overview of previous studies showed the importance of estimating growth for predicting the size of species at a certain age (Sparre & Venema, 1992); for modeling population dynamics (Hoggarth et al., 2006), for providing valuable data about lifespan, age at recruitment, maturity, and cohort identification (Sharifian, Kamrani, et al., 2017); and for the development of effective management programs (Dalu et al., 2016). Moreover, the population dynamics of organisms can provide baseline data for predicting the effect of global warming on their geographical distribution range (Sanda, Hamasaki, Dan, & Kitada, 2019; Wakiya, Itakura, & Kaifu, 2019).

Previous studies reflect a few number of researches on the population structure of crabs of the genus Scopimera (Clayton & Al-Kindi, 1998; Gherardi & Russo, 2001; Gherardi, Russo, & Lazzara, 2002; Sharifian, Malekzadeh, Kamrani, & Safaie, 2017; Wada, Ashidate, Yoshino, Sato, & Goshima, 2000), with most studies performed on the distribution (Fielder, 1971), and breeding biology (Wada, 1981; Yamaguchi & Tanaka, 1974). In the present study, the population ecology, growth, mortality, and sex ratio of sand-bubbler crab S. crabricauda using length-frequency data were examined from Persian Gulf, Iran.

Methods

Study site and collection of data

The sampling area is sandy shores of the Persian Gulf, the sandy coasts of the main park of Bandar Abbas (27°11′N 56°20′E) (Fig. 1), the south of Iran. The climate of this area is tropical, and the annual water temperature varies from 22 to 38 °C.

Fig. 1
figure1

Sampling locations in southern Golshahr, Bandar Abbas, Persian Gulf

Samples were taken monthly from January 2016 to January 2017. The sampling was performed by excavating nine quadrats (100 × 100 × 20 cm deep; three for each intertidal level) in high-density areas of open burrows, and collecting the crabs after sieving the sand (Hails & Aziz, 1982) at three intertidal levels -low, mid and high- during spring low tides. At the sampling site, crabs were sexed and counted for each intertidal level. The carapace width (CW) and carapace length (CL) were measured using a Vernier caliper (± 0.01 mm accuracy), with terminology based on Ng (1988). The total body weight TW was measured in a standard electric balance with 0.0001 g accuracy. Then, the crabs were released back into the field.

Size-frequency distribution

The crabs were grouped into 11 (0.5 mm) CW classes (3–3.5 to 8–8.5 mm) with the number and range of size classes based on the best fit of the growth models.

Growth

Von Bertalanffy growth function was used to describe the growth of crab (Ricker, 1975) as the following:

$$ {\mathrm{CW}}_t={\mathrm{CW}}_{\infty}\kern0.5em \left(1-{{e^{-K\ \Big(t-t}}_0}^{\Big)}\right), $$

where CWt is defined as the length at time t, t0 as the age at zero length, CW∞ as the asymptotic length, and K as the growth rate of crab. The data of length frequency were input into the program FiSAT and the parameters CW∞ and K were estimated by the ELEFAN1 method. The t0 was calculated by Pauly’s empirical equation (Pauly, 1983).

$$ \log\ \left(-{t}_0\right)=-0.3922-0.2752\log \left(\mathrm{CW}\infty \right)-1.038\mathrm{log}K $$

The separation of length-frequency composition into its age groups was performed by the Bhattacharya method (Bhattacharya, 1967). The growth performance of crabs was calculated by Munro’s Index (Φ′) (Pauly & Munro, 1984) as the following:

$$ \Phi^{\prime }=\log\ K+2\times \log\ \mathrm{CW}\infty $$

Munro’s Index (Φ′) can be applied for comparison of the growth between the different sexes or the species along latitudinal gradients or among taxonomic groups.

Mortality, the maximum long life (T max), and sex ratio

Pauly’s empirical formula (Pauly, 1980) was used to calculate the rate of natural mortality (M) as the following:

$$ \mathrm{Ln}\ (M)=-0.0152-0.279\ \ln\ \left(\mathrm{CW}\infty \right)+0.6543\ \ln\ (K)+0.4634\ln\ (T) $$

where T is the mean water temperature (°C), with the range of 25 to 35 °C in the study area.

The equation Tmax = (2.996/K) (Taylor, 1958) was applied for calculating the maximum long life (Tmax).

The sex ratio was assessed by a chi-squared test (χ2) for the detection of a significant deviation from a 1:1 sex ratio by month (p < 0.05).

Results

The size-frequency distributions of both sexes showed the maximum frequency of male and female crabs in the range 6.0–6.5 and 5.0–5.5, respectively, extending to at least 3.0–3.5 mm (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2
figure2

Relative frequency of crab S. crabricauda in Persian Gulf (distribution in 11 and 8 carapace width (CW) classes for male and female crabs, respectively)

The overall sex ratio recorded was 1:0.4 and was significantly different from the expected 1:1 proportion (chi-square test, p = 0.00) with male-biased. However, in some months, January (2016) and March, the sex ratio was not significantly different than the expected ratio (Table 1).

Table 1 Sex ratio and absolute monthly frequencies of crab S. crabricauda by sex in Persian Gulf

The K value was 0.56, 0.59, and 0.57 years−1, with a CW∞ of 8.76, 7.90, and 9.35 mm for males, females, and both sexes, respectively (Fig. 3). Moreover, five and four cohorts were recognizable (black line) for males and females, respectively in Fig. 4. The estimated age of S. crabricauda at the first juvenile stage (t0) was − 0.39, − 0.40, − 0.41 years for males, females, and both sexes, respectively. Using the Bhattacharya method, age groups (cohorts) (with the mean of carapace width for each cohort) of S. crabricauda were identified (Table 2; Fig. 4). The age groups are seen as almost being continuous groups, which is characteristic of a long-lived species (Fig. 4a–d). Using this method, one age group (cohort) for males and females was identified with the mean model carapace width of 6.22 and 5.45 mm, respectively (Table 2, Fig. 4a, b), as well as two age groups with the mean model carapace width 5.39 and 7.11 mm for both sexes (Table 2; Fig. 4c, d). Recruitment occurred with the highest number of annual pulse once a year during the summer and on the relative strength of juveniles at June with 19.66%, reaching a minimum in September with 2.39 % (Fig. 4e). The calculated Munro’s Index (Φ) was 1.63, 1.56, and 1.70 with natural mortality estimated at 1.72, 1.83, and 1.76 (years−1) for males, females, and both sexes, respectively, based on the mean water temperature of the different months (ranging from 22 to 38 °C).

Fig. 3
figure3

Carapace-width frequency distribution with growth curves from a males, b females, and c both sexes of S. crabricauda in Persian Gulf (note the black lines representing the cohorts)

Fig. 4
figure4

Composite distributions of the pooled width-frequency composition from a males, b females, c both sexes of S. crabricauda, identified by the Bhattacharya (1967) method, for each month, and d for both sexes through years, as well as e pattern recruitment of both sexes (note that each curve represents one age group)

Table 2 Summary of the growth parameter estimates of crab S. crabricauda (mean = mean of carapace width; S. D = standard deviation; S. I = separation index). M: male; F: female, B: both sexes

The growth equation of S. crabricauda based on Bertalanffy’s model allowed the determination of the relationship between the inner carapace width and age (Fig. 5) with the growth curve CWt = 8.76 [1 − exp (− 0.56 (t + 0.39))] for males, CWt = 7.90 [1 − exp (− 0.59 (t + 0.40))] for females, and CWt = 9.35 [1 − exp (− 0.57 (t + 0.41))] for both sexes, respectively.

Fig. 5
figure5

Growth curves of in crab S. crabricauda in Persian Gulf (note the increasing process until arriving at an asymptotic length (CW∞) identified by the straight line)

According to the obtained growth curves, the carapace width in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth years was estimated to be 4.73, 6.46, 7.44, 8.01, and 8.33 mm, for males; 4.44, 5.98, 6.83, 7.31, and 7.57 mm, for females; and 5.15, 6.98, 8.01, 8.59, and 8.92, for both sexes, respectively (Fig. 5). The estimated maximum lifespan was 5.35, 5.07, and 5.26 years for males, females, and both sexes of S. crabricauda, respectively.

Discussion

The size-frequency distribution of S. crabricauda was unimodal for both sexes. A unimodal frequency distribution was also found in the population of two Dotillid crabs Scopimera crabricauda and Dotilla sulcata Forskåll 1775 in an estuarine habitat in Oman (Clayton & Al-Kindi, 1998), sand bubbler crab Dotilla fenestrata Hilgendorf 1869 in the mangrove swamp of Kenya (Gherardi et al., 2002; Gherardi & Russo, 2001) and the population of Scoρimera globosa De Haan, 1835 from Japan (Yamaguchi & Tanaka, 1974). However, the distribution Scopimera globosa and Ilyoplax pusillus De Haan, 1835 was reported bimodal from the estuary of Waka river, Japan (Wada, 1981) reflecting seasonal mortality pulses and behavioral differences in harsh environmental conditions (Thurman, 1985). Moreover, Wada (1981) reported the size-frequency distribution can show the density of crabs, so that the large sex-able crabs show the lower densities on the whole. In regard to the above-mentioned cases about the unimodal distribution in the most dotillid crabs, it seems the size-frequency distribution of S. crabricauda is not the exception in terms of unimodal distribution. We also observed a clear sexual dimorphism, with males larger than females (Sharifian, Malekzadeh, et al., 2017) in agreement with the finding of Clayton and Al-Kindi (1998), Kobayashi and Archdale (2020), and Hamasaki, Osabe, Nishimoto, Dan, and Kitada (2020).

The overall sex ratio here for S. crabricauda was significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. The varied reasons were reported for a significant difference of sex ratio including differential primary distribution (Fielder, 1971), mortality (Wada et al., 2000), lifespan, migration, food restriction, the utilization of habitats (Johnson, 2003), the behavior of the feeding, and the emergence during low tide between the sexes (Fielder, 1971). It was reported that deviations from the 1:1 sex ratio can affect the reproductive potential of the population and regulate the population size (Lardies, Rojas, & Wehrtman, 2004). The sex ratio of S. crabricauda was found to be similar to Scopimera inflata Milne-Edwards, 1873 from the sandy beaches of the eastern Australian coast (Fielder, 1971) and different with two dotillid crabs Scopimera crabricauda and Dotilla sulcata from an estuarine habitat in Oman (Clayton & Al-Kindi, 1998). The differences in primary distribution and the feeding behavior between sexes of S. crabricauda may be the reason for different sex ratio.

In the population studies, the mean length (in crabs, width carapace) of infinitely old crabs in population be defined as the asymptotic length (L) and subsequently, growth rate (K) be determined as the rate approaching of crab to its asymptotic length (L). The crabs showing high growth rate have properties including a short-lived, the achieving to the asymptotic length (L∞) within one or two years, and the continual growth during the year (Koch, Wolff, & Diele, 2005). On the contrary, crabs with a low growth rate (K) show a flat growth curve. The relatively low growth rate and a long lifespan of S. crabricauda reflect its slow growth. It is obvious the effect of temperature on the growth and the reproduction of crabs (Wolcott, 1988).

The age at zero length (t0) of S. crabricauda showed a negative value indicating more rapid growth of juveniles than adult crabs (King, 1995). Given that crab S. crabricauda is a marine crab and in most aquatic organisms, juvenile individuals have a higher growth rate than adult ones, it seems this crab is not the exception from this general principle.

The estimated Munro’s Index (Φ) of crab S. crabricauda was 1.63 and 1.56 for males and females, respectively. The most important function of this index is the comparison the growth rate of isomorph crabs so that it is nearly constant for the same species (Pauly & Munro, 1984).

The reproduction and rapid recruitment can change the size-frequency distribution of a population during the year (Tao, 1994). We observed high recruitment for juveniles of S. crabricauda during summer which declines in autumn. The highest number of ovigerous S. crabricauda was observed from March to April during spring (Sharifian, Malekzadeh, et al., 2017). According to reach to the maximum ovigerous S. crabricauda in April, it expected the existence peak of recruitment in June. Moreover, the changing in concentrations of nutrients in the environment can affect the pulse of recruitment (Sharifian, Kamrani, et al., 2017).

The estimated natural mortality rate of crab S. crabricauda was 1.72 and 1.83 (years−1) for male and female crabs, respectively. Although, in studies of population dynamics, a natural mortality rate is one of the basic parameters difficult to estimate accurately; however, its value has been reported mostly between 1.5 and 2.5 depending on the environment and the species (Beverton & Holt, 1959). In this respect, it can be stated natural mortality rate of crab S. crabricauda is relatively high. The natural mortality rate can be related to the relative abundance of predators in the environment (Safaie et al., 2013), growth rate (Sparre & Venema, 1992), and reproduction (producing more eggs in species with higher natural mortality rate) (Gunderson & Dygert, 1988). Considering that intertidal habitat and high environmental fluctuation, besides the reporting of dotillid crabs producing high eggs (Yamaguchi & Tanaka, 1974), the relatively high natural mortality of crab S. crabricauda is reasonable.

Conclusions

Considering the habitat of S. crabricauda (sandy coast of the main park at Bandar Abbas), subsequently susceptibility of crab to various types of environmental pollution (including plastic waste, urban sewage as reported main challenges in this park) and with reference to the results of our study, which predict a slow growth for this species, it seems that the crab’s storage has a long-term recovery potential. Therefore, proper management is critical for the conservation stock of S. crabricauda as benthic ecological indicators in coasts of Persian Gulf, Iran.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

CW:

Carapace width

CL:

Carapace length

TW:

Total weight

References

  1. Alcock, A. (1900). Materials for a carcinological fauna of India. No. 6, The Brachyura Catometopa, or Grapsoidea, (p. 200). Baptist Mission Press. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15344.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  2. Beverton, R. J. H., & Holt, S. J. (1959). A review of the lifespans and mortality rate of fish in nature, and their relation to growth and other physiological characteristics. In W. GEW, & M. O’Connor (Eds.), CIBA Foundation, colloquia on ageing. The lifespan of animals, (vol. 5, pp. 142–180). Churchill.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bhattacharya, C. C. (1967). A simple method of resolution of a distribution into Gaussian components. Biometrics., 23(1), 115–135. https://doi.org/10.2307/2528285.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Chan, B. K. K., & Williams, G. A. (2004). Population dynamics of the acorn barnacles, Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) in Hong Kong. Marine Biology, 146(1), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-004-1426-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Clayton, D. A., & Al-Kindi, A. (1998). Population structure and dynamics of two scopimerine sand crabs Scopimera crabricauda Alcock 1900 and Dotilla sulcata (Forskåll 1775) in an estuarine habitat in Oman. Tropical Zoology, 11(2), 197–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.1998.10539363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dalu, T., Sachikonye, M. T., Alexander, M. E., Dube, T., Froneman, W. P., Manungo, K. I., … Wasserman, R. J. (2016). Ecological assessment of two species of potamonautid freshwater crabs from the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe, with implications for their conservation. PloS one, 11(1), e0145923. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145923.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. De Haan, W. (1835). Crustacea. In P. F. von Siebold (Ed.), Fauna Japonica, (pp. 25–64). Muller.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Diele, K. V., & Koch, D. (2010). Growth and mortality of the exploited mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ucididae) in NBrazil. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 395, 171–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Fielder, D. R. (1971). Some aspects of the distribution and population structure in the sand bubbler crab Scopimera inflata Milne Edwards 1873 (Decapoda, Ocypodidae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research., 22, 41–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gherardi, F., & Russo, S. (2001). Burrwing in the ocypodid crab, Dotilla fenestrata (crustacean, Ocypodidae) living in a mangrove swamp. Journal of Zoology, London., 253, 211–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gherardi, F., Russo, S., & Anyona, D. (1999). Burrow-orientated activity in the ocypodid crab, Dotilla fenestrata, living in a mangrove swamp. Journal of the Marine Biological Association UK (JMBA), 79, 281–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gherardi, F., Russo, S., & Lazzara, L. (2002). The function of wandering in the sand-bubbler crab. Dotilla fenestrata, Journal of Crustacean Biology., 22, 521–531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Gunderson, D. R., & Dygert, P. H. (1988). Reproductive effort as a predictor of natural mortality rate. ICES Journal of Marine Science., 44, 200–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hails, A. J., & Aziz, Y. S. (1982). Abundance, breeding and growth of the ocypodid crab Dotilla myctiroides (Milne-Edwards) on a West Malaysian beach. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 15, 229–239.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Hamasaki, K., Osabe, N., Nishimoto, S., Dan, S., & Kitada, S. (2020). Sexual dimorphism and reproductive status of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkia. Zoological Studies, 59, 7.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hartnoll, R. G. (1973). Factors affecting the distribution and behaviour of the crab Dotilla fenestrata on East African shores. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 1, 137–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Hartnoll, R. G. (1974). Variation in growth pattern between some secondary sexual characteres in crabs (Decapoda, Brachyura). Crustaceana, 27, 131–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Hoggarth, D. D. S., Abeyasekera, R. I., Arthur, J. R., Beddington, R. W., Burn, A. S., Halls, G. P., … Welcomme, R. L. (2006). Stock assessment for fishery management – a framework guide to the stock assessment tools of the fisheries management science programme (FMSP). In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 487, Rome.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Johnson, P. T. J. (2003). Biased sex ratios in fiddler crabs (Brachyura, Ocypodidae): a review and evaluation of the influence of sampling method, size class and sex-specific mortality. Crustaceana., 76, 559–580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. King, M. (1995). Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management, (pp. 1–341). Fishing News Books.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kobayashi, S., & Archdale, M. (2020). Sexual traits and reproductive strategy of the leucosiid crab Pyrhila pisum. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 100(6), 939–948.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Koch, V., Wolff, M., & Diele, K. (2005). Comparative population dynamics of four fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae, genus Uca) from a North Brazilian mangrove ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress., 291, 177–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kondzela, C. M., & Shirley, T. C. (1993). Survival, feeding, and growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs from southeastern Alaska reared at different temperatures. Journal of Crustacean Biology., 13, 25–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lardies, M. A. J., Rojas, M., & Wehrtman, I. S. (2004). Breeding biology and population structure of the intertidal crab Petrolisthes laevigatus (Anomura: Porcellanidae) in centralsouthern Chile. Journal of Natural History., 38, 375–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Ledesma, F. M., Molen, V., & Baron, P. J. (2010). Sex identification of Carcinus maenas by analysis of carapace geometrical morphometry. Journal of Sea Research., 63, 213–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Milne-Edwards, A. (1873). In R. Bouillé (Ed.), Compte de. Paléontologie de Biarritz et de quelques autres localités des Basses-Pyrénées. Compte Rendu des Travaux du Congrès Scientifique de France, (XXXIX’ session a Pau). V. Vignancour, Pau.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ng, P. K. L. (1988). The Freshwater Crabs of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Shinglee Press, National University of Singapore, Department of Zoology.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Ng, P. K. L., Guinot, D., & Davie, P. J. F. (2008). Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of the extant brachyuran crabs of the world. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement, 17, 1–286.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Pauly, D. (1980). On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmental tempature in 175 fish stocks. The ICES Journal of Marine Science., 39, 175–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Pauly, D. (1983). Some simple methods for the assessment of tropical fish stocks. FAO Fish Technical Paper, 234, 52.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Pauly, D., & Munro, J. L. (1984). Once more on the comparison of growth in fish and invertebrates. Fishbyte, 2, 1–21 The WorldFish Center.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Ricker, W. E. (1975). Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations. Bulletin (Canada. Fisheries Research Board), 191, 382 Department of the Environment, Fisheries and Marine Service.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Safaie, M., Kiabi, B., Pazooki, J., & Shokri, M. R. (2013). Growth parameters and mortality rates of the blue swimming crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) in coastal waters of Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 60, 9–13.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sanda, S., Hamasaki, K., Dan, S., & Kitada, S. (2019). Expansion of the northern geographical distribution of land hermit crab populations: colonization and overwintering success of Coenobita purpureus on the coast of the Boso Peninsula, Japan. Zoological Studies, 58, 25.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Sharifian, S., Kamrani, E., Safaie, M., & Sharifian, S. (2017). Population structure and growth of freshwater crab Sodhiana iranica from the south of Iran. Fundamental and Applied Limnology., 189, 341–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Sharifian, S., Malekzadeh, V., Kamrani, E., & Safaie, M. (2017). Population structure and morphometric variation in the sand-bubbler crab Scopimera crabricauda (Brachyura: Dotillidae). Animal Biology., 67, 319–330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Silva, E., Calazans, N., Nolé, L., Soares, R., Frédou, F., & Peixoto, S. (2019). Population dynamics of the white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti (Burkenroad, 1936) on the southern coast of Pernambuco, north-eastern Brazil. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 99(2), 429–435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Sousa, A., Bernardes, V., Bernardo, C., Teixeira, G., Marques, A., & Fransozo, A. (2021). Unveiling the dynamics of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae, through reproductive and population characteristics on the south-eastern coast of Brazil. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 100(8), 1311–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315420001289.

  39. Sparre, P., & Venema, S. C. (1992). Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment Part 1. Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 306, 376.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Tao, C. (1994). Growth, reproduction and population structure of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekeiense (Bott, 1967) from Zhejiang, China. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 12, 85–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Taylor, C. C. (1958). Cod growth and temperature, Journal du. Conseil. International. Pourl Exploration.de la Mer, 23, 366–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Thurman, C. L. (1985). Reproductive biology and population structure of the fiddler crab Uca subcylindrica (Stimpson). The Biological Bulletin., 169, 215–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Vannini, M., & Cannicci, S. (1995). Homing behavior and possible cognitive maps in crustacean decapods. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology., 193, 67–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Wada, K. (1981). Growth, breeding and recruitment in Scopimera globosa and Ilyoplax pusillus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae) in the estuary of Waka River, middle Japan. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory., 26, 243–259.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Wada, S., Ashidate, M., Yoshino, K., Sato, T., & Goshima, S. (2000). Effects of sex ratio on egg extrusion frequency and mating behaviour of the spiny king crab Paralithodes brevipes (Decapoda: Lithodidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology., 20, 479–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Wakiya, R., Itakura, H., & Kaifu, K. (2019). Age, growth, and sex ratios of the giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, in freshwater habitats near its northern geographic limit: a comparison to tropical regions. Zoological Studies, 58, 34.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Wolcott, T. G. (1988). Ecology. In W. Burggren, & B. R. McMahon (Eds.), Biology of Land Crab, (pp. 55–96). Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  48. Wong, K. J. H., Chan, B. K. K., & Shih, H. T. (2010). Taxonomy of the sand bubbler crabs Scopimera globosa De Haan, 1835, and S. tuberculata Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Dotillidae) in East Asia, with description of a new species from the Ryukyus, Japan. Zootaxa, 2345, 43–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Yamaguchi, T., & Tanaka, M. (1974). Studies on the ecology of a sand bubbler crab, Scopimera globosa De Haan (Decapoda, Ocypodidae): I. Seasonal variation of population structure. Japanese Journal of Ecology, 24, 165–174.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This paper was based on a thesis submitted by the second author to the Department of fisheries, University of Hormozgan (Iran), in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master degree in Marine Biology. Special thanks to the fieldworkers for their valued assistance in sampling crabs. The authors are highly grateful to the Department of fisheries, University of Hormozgan, for providing laboratory assistance.

Funding

There was no funding from external sources for this research.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

S.S: Statistical analysis, writing the paper; V.M: Data collection, data preparation; E.K. and M.S: The guidance in the methods and results. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sana Sharifian.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sharifian, S., Malekzadeh, V., Kamrani, E. et al. Growth and population biology of the sand-bubbler crab Scopimera crabricauda Alcock 1900 (Brachyura: Dotillidae) from the Persian Gulf, Iran. JoBAZ 82, 21 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41936-021-00218-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dotillid crabs
  • Sex ratios
  • Von Bertalanffy model
  • Persian Gulf